Biography of Napoleón III Bonaparte. Emperador de Francia (1808-1873)

Emperor of the French, from 1852 until 1870; born in Paris, of April 20, 1808, and died in Chislehurst, Kent, on January 2, 1873. Third son of Luis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and his wife, Hortensia de Beauharnais. In 1810 his mother separated from Luis Bonaparte, and to ensue the restoration, the future Napoleón III was installed next to it in the Palace of Arenenberg in the S shore of Lake Constance. He joined the Italian carbonarismo and participated in the insurrection of central Italy in 1831. The death of Napoleón II, in 1832, was erected in the Bonapartist pretender. Your tried rebel garrison of Strasbourg (1836) forced him into exile to America, where he went to Switzerland and then to Great Britain (1838).

He continued getting along with his friends in France, and in 1840 attempted another movement to overthrow the French Government. It landed on the beach in WIMEREUX, near Boulogne, on 6 August of that year, but did not succeed since he was arrested with his accomplices.

Napoleon was imprisoned and taken to prison in Hamburg, where he wrote endangered du pauperisme (1844). On May 25, 1846 he managed to escape and fled to England, where he remained until he broke out in France the revolution of 1848. The second Republic was proclaimed, Napoleon became the symbol which all tendencies of the Frenchmen joined.

On December 19, 1848 he was elected President of the Republic and since then all his footsteps made their way to the acquisition of greater authority and to seek popularity among all sectors of French society. He had enough ability to increase his power personal and, at the same time, take a look of defender of democracy. When, in may 1850, the Assembly reduced the number of voters, was able to break out of the responsibility of this measure, thus showing the inability of the system and the need for a change, expected would be in his favor.

Carefully prepared a coup, and when the Assembly refused to repeal the law on suffrage, in 1851, saw the opportunity to act. The people entrusted to Napoleon the preparation of a new Constitution. It was proclaimed on January 14, 1852, and although it retained the Republican forms, gave extraordinary powers to the President, having in addition administrative centralization, control of universal suffrage and the subordination of the State legislatures. On December 2, 1852, Luis Napoleon was declared Emperor, taking the name of Napoleón III. The second French Empire lasted for 18 years, and during this period, France became the leading power of Europe. The imperial court with all its brilliance and splendor was restored, and Paris was the European Centre of luxury and elegance. January 29, 1853, married to the Spanish Eugenia de Montijo, Countess of Teba.

The war of Crimea (1854-1856) seemed to turn France into the area of Europe, that the Emperor intended to reform according to the revolutionary principles (right of peoples to dispose of them), but keeping the order according to the tradition of the ancien régime. It was in accordance with Cavour and undertook the war of Italy (1859), which provided him nice and Savoy (1860).

Due to the development of the French industry and the growing importance of the working class, tried to carry out a series of measures, apparently received, to channel the labor movement. But the concessions of the Emperor only managed to strengthen the opposition: expansion of the doctrines of Proudhon, participation in the international first, strikes of Le Creusot and Lyon, etc.; While its foreign policy suffered from large failures. The unfortunate expedition to Mexico (1862-1867) and freedom of action allowed Prussia against Austria, which led to the defeat of Sadowa (1866), as well as the sensitive issue of Roman (Mentana, 1867), announcing foreign decadence.

When you pointed out the Prussian threat, it failed to either avoid it or directing the war, and had to capitulate in Sedan, on September 2, 1870. Capitulation which ended with the surrender of the French and where Napoleón III was taken prisoner, ended the first phase of the Franco-Prussian War and was also ended the second French Empire. Napoleon III was confined in the castle of Wihelmshobe, near Kassel, where it remained until the termination of the war in 1871. Meanwhile, a group of Republicans led by Gambetta in Paris, proclaimed the French third Republic and deposed the Napoleón III. When he was released by the Germans, he met his wife and son in Chislehurst, England. In 1872, suffering from a bladder stones so strong that they prevented you move or sleep, he call the prestigious English physician Henry Thompson, that he had previously treated with success to Leopold I. Given the seriousness of the State of Napoleon, Thompson proposed to insert a catheter into the bladder, to which the Emperor refused. If he accepted, on the other hand, undergo two litotricias that drove out fragments of kidney stones. However, Thompson could not do much by Napoleón III, who died of a heart attack, as practiced you third lithotripsy. The Emperor's autopsy revealed that they had wrecked kidneys, because of so severe and prolonged assault.

During the 20 years of the reign of Napoleón III, the French economy experienced an extraordinary boom. Increased trade, revived the industry, laying railroad and banking organization. It was able to attract a good sector of the working class, by promulgating any social legislation; and tried at the same time, not ill with the liberal bourgeoisie. He also paid attention to important agricultural population by number. With protectively nationalists prentendio transform the European order established, and lacking of media for this company, failed in its efforts. With the death of his son in 1879, in South Africa, fighting the Zulus, were dashed all hopes of restoring the dynasty Bonaparte in France.