Biography of Bo o Maung Shu Mang Ne Win (1911-2002)

Military and political of Myanmar (Burma), born on May 24, 1911 at Paungdale and died in Yangon on December 5, 2002. Between 1962 and 1988 he ruled Burma as Chairman of a dictatorial Communist regime.

He studied at the Yangon University between 1929 and 1931. In the mid-1930s he joined the nationalist struggle against British colonial rule. When, at the beginning of the second world war, Japan invaded Burma, Ne Win and other leaders of the nationalist movement Thakin, as U Nu or Aung San, founded the army of the independence of Myanmar with Japanese support. In 1941 Ne Win was one of the thirty comrades who traveled to Hainan to receive military training by the Japanese army. The Alliance between Japanese and Burmese nationalists lasted while the first showed interest in the struggle for liberation from colonialism, and between 1943 and 1945, Ne Win served in the Nationalist army under Japanese command. But soon relationships were conflicting due to interests that Japan had over Burma. At the end of the conflict, the leaders of the nationalist movement organized the underground resistance against the Japanese occupation and lent support to the allies.

On January 4, 1948 Burma finally gained independence from England and Ne Win was appointed commander in Chief of the new national army. Ten years later, the Government led by his former comrade, U Nu, was overwhelmed by ethnic rebellions which were declared to the length and breadth of the country. Ne Win was responsible for presiding over a Government of national emergency. His regime was extremely unpopular and unable to resolve the ethnic problem. U Nu was re-elected in elections called in 1960 and Ne Win was forced to leave power, at the time were resettling the parliamentary regime.

On March 2, 1962, Ne Win led a military insurrection which overthrew the constitutional Government and returned the absolute power. U Nu was imprisoned and his Government replaced by the Council revolutionary of the Union of Myanmar, whose members came almost entirely from the military leadership. Thus opened a dictatorial regime of Communist character that proclaimed the call "via Burma towards socialism". Ne Win launched an ambitious program of accelerated industrialization which razed to the ground the traditional agricultural economy of the country, at the time attacking the monopoly on trade in Chinese, Indian and Pakistani businessmen were. The economic changes were accompanied from a brutal political repression aimed at eliminating any hint of dissent. Buddhism became the official religion and traditional practices of the various religious minorities were persecuted.

Economic autarky designed by the Ne Win regime isolated completely to Burma from the outside world, including the countries in its immediate geographical surroundings. In foreign policy, Ne Win took a stance of neutrality before the conflicts in Southeast Asia and saved any attempt at openness. In 1964, he abolished all political organizations except the Burmese of the program Socialist Party, of which he was founder, whose control was in the hands of the army. The Constitution adopted in 1972-73 legitimized the single party regime. The following year, Ne Win was proclaimed President of the Republic. In 1981 he resigned from the Presidency, but remained in hands the power wires from the leadership of the party program.

In 1987, after twenty-five years of autarky, economic dislocation and political corruption, Myanmar, who had been one of the major exporters of rice in the world, was mired in a terrible crisis food and turned into one of the poorest countries on the planet. The social fracture that caused the economic crisis, with the generalized statement of riots in major cities by the end of that year, forced Ne Win to power, resigning from their public posts in July 1988. The party program was replaced by the State Council of law and order, also controlled by the military. Ne Win officially abandoned the Government, but it kept its extraordinary political influence behind the scenes. In March 2001, he was sentenced to remain under house arrest for his alleged involvement in a coup attempt carried out by several relatives of the former dictator.