Chilean poet born in Parral in July 12, 1904 and died on September 23, 1973 in his hometown. His real name was Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basualdo, although he is universally known by the pseudonym of Pablo Neruda. Awarded was Lenin peace prize in 1953 and was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1971.
He was born in a modest family. His parents were Doña Rosa Basoalto, school teacher, and José del Carmen, railway of profession. Two years after the premature death of his mother - his death took place when Naphtali had only a month-, Naphtali, and his father moved to Temuco; There don José de el Carmen married Trinidad Candia Marverde. Four years later, he entered the Lyceum of men of Temuco, place where he would carry out all of their studies.
In 1920 she completed her studies of Humanities and that same year adopted the pseudonym by which was universally known--in memory of the Czechoslovak writer Jan Neruda - to sign the poems which were published in the magazine run and fly from Santiago and other publications of the same type from the cities of Chillan, Temuco and Valdivia since 1917.
He moved to Santiago and, in 1921, joined the then Institute teaching of the University of Chile to study pedagogy in French, race abandoned in third year. With the song of the Festival it won the competition of the Federation of students during a Spring Festival; This award led to begin then to collaborate in the magazine clarity, dependent on the Federation.
Crepusculario was published in 1923 and the following year, twenty love poems and a song of despair. In 1925 he appeared his poetry collection attempt of the infinite man and that same year took over the management of the Bastos Horse magazine. In 1926 he saw light rings, volume that were collected a series of narrations of Neruda along with others of the writer Thomas Lake and the novel the inhabitant and their hope. A year later was appointed Consul ad Honorem in Rangoon (Burma) by the Government of Carlos Ibáñez; Subsequently he served as Consul in different parts of the world: Colombo, Batavia, Singapore, Barcelona, Madrid, etc. In 1930 he married María Antonieta Haagenar. In 1933 came to light two poems by the Chilean poet, the Slinger enthusiast and residence on Earth. Between 1934 and 1938 he was in Spain and during the first year of their stay in that country was born his daughter, Malva Marina. He immediately joined the cultural hotbed that was the Madrid of the era, fully incorporated into that environment, carried out the Foundation of the Green Horse for poetry magazine. That same year he met Delia del Carril. In 1935 he published residence on Earth II.
During the war, Spanish civil was removed from his consular post in Madrid. He traveled, then to Paris at the time who was separated from his wife. In 1937 he returned to Chile, where Spain appeared in the heart; two years later was appointed consul for Spanish emigration by the Government of don Pedro Aguirre Cerda, as such, was responsible for embarking on the Winnipeg to many exiled Spaniards who, at the end of the civil war, they found refuge in Chile. In the same year was published the Furies and penalties. In 1941 he was appointed Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Michoacán (Mexico). His daughter died in Europe. In 1944 he won the Municipal Prize for poetry and, a year later, was elected Senator for Tarapacá and Antofagasta; He was also awarded the national prize for literature. In 1947 saw the third residence, volume that includes the Furies and penalties and Spain in the heart. His entry into the Chilean Socialist Party in 1939 originated a new change in his work, this new turn toward clarity and political commitment is collected in this book of poems.
The year 1948 he made his famous speech I accuse in the Senate, which is disbarred by the Supreme Court. After this fact, it remained hidden until 1949, in which left Chile and travelled to the Soviet Union, Poland and Hungary.
In 1950 he published Canto General, then met Matilde Urrutia - with whom he married in 1966 - and undertook a trip through Europe and Asia. In 1952 he settled in Italy and published a new book of poems, the captain's verses. He returned to Chile the following year and during this brief stay, took the opportunity to donate his library to the University of Chile. In 1955 he separated from his second wife, Delia del Carril, whom the poet called "the Ant" and collected and published all his lectures in a volume entitled travel. In 1957 appeared the first edition of his complete works, and that same year, he was appointed President of the society of Escritores de Chile.
In 1962 he was appointed academic member of the Faculty of education of the University of Chile. In the same year were published discourses (of Neruda and Nicanor Parra). In 1965 he was named Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Oxford and published eating in Hungary, in collaboration with Miguel Ángel Asturias. In 1966 he married Matilde Urrutia, and in 1969 was presented as candidate to the Presidency of the Republic. Then come: tsunami (1970), fruitless geography (1972), La Rosa separated (1972), incitement to the Nixonicidio and praise of the Cuban Revolution (1973).
In 1971, he came to the Chilean poet international recognition with the Nobel Prize for literature. He died on September 23, 1973 and from 1974 they began to appear their posthumous books: winter garden, 2000, the yellow heart, the book of questions, elegy, the sea and the bells, chosen defects, I confess that I have lived, I was born to be born. On December 12, 1992 are moved his remains to the grave definitive in his house in Isla Negra in fulfilment of their desires, as they were expressed in the "disposicion" of the General song poem:
"Comrades, enterrad me in Isla Negra, facing the sea, I know, to each area of rough stones and waves that my lost eyes will not see."
The book a house in the sand was written in memory of this House in Isla Negra, its home for many years. There he treasured collections of so many things collected in his travels around the world. But their other two residences were also significant: La Chascona in Santiago and La Sebastiana, Valparaíso, places that have become museums where visitors can contemplate the memories materials of the poet and the characters who were their best friends, as well as also the soul children, creative and playful poet and the admiration that the Chilean people has professed him for so many years.
On March 18, 2004 began the celebrations of the centenary of the birth of Pablo Neruda, with a tribute organized by the Unesco in Paris. Dozens of countries organized events on the occasion of this commemoration, which had special significance in the Chilean city of Parral, where a massive ceremony was held the day of the birth centenary of the poet.
His vast and fertile poetic work responds to a wide variety of styles ranging from Hermeticism to the prose, since the more educated elaborations to popular tradition. His literary production began in 1923 with the publication of Crepusculario. Twenty love poems and a song of despair (1924) is considered to be a book of love youth, passionate, with a warm, candid and simple style. Later, influenced by surrealism, he published between 1933 and 1935 residence on Earth, which shows a terrible vision of the human being, in a meaningless and chaotic world.
Its adherence to Marxism seems to result in Neruda a reconciliation with the human being. It strives to build a better world, so it publishes third residence (1947), where he inserted his first political poems. This work contains several parts; one of them, Spain in the heart, where is present willingness to enlarge the fight Republican in the Spanish Civil War. With this new politico-civil ideology of his poetry he composed Canto general, (1950). His poetry came to be so combative that it neglected at certain times its production, making it direct and, occasionally, hectoring; This does not remove so that we find ourselves with poems of great quality as the part entitled Alturas de Machu Picchu.
Its trend towards a clear and simple language led him to publish elemental Odes (1954-57); in it, singing both to immediate realities: the air, the bread, as feelings: joy, hope, etc. Other later works are: "estravagario" (1958), Cien sonetos de amor (1959), Memorial de Isla Negra (1964), the work autobiographical; Glare and death of Joaquín Murieta (1967), even (1971), the stones of the sky (1971), the flaming sword (1972). One of the last poems by Neruda was invitation to the Nixonicidio, of a controversial nature.
In 1996 it appeared three notebooks of unpublished poems composed by the poet when he was fifteen years old; they were published the following year under the title of Cuadernos de Temuco.
In prose he wrote the inhabitant and their hope (1926) and rings (1967); a play with the same name as the poem Fulgor and death of Joaquín Murieta. Posthumously, in 1974, published his memoirs, I confess that I have lived, where Neruda is shown as an excellent chronicler; recalls the figure of his friends, account under which circumstances composed his poems and relationship maintained with outstanding personages from the cultural and political life of his time.
Politically engaged poet who denounced social injustices at all times. Used for this purpose, a rich and powerful inspiration, based on its own vitality to become, without a doubt, one of the greatest figures of the Castilian written poetry. Undisputed master of poets of very different sign.
http://www.centenariopabloneruda.cl; page created on the occasion of the centenary of the poet.