Biography of Charles Nodier (1780-1844)

Poet, Narrator, playwright, essayist and French lexicographer, born in Besançon (in the Department of Doubs) on April 29, 1780 and died in Paris on January 27, 1844. Leading figure in romanticism, cultivated with singular success fantasy literature, which contributed the taste for exploration of ambiguous and dramatic situations, and was one of the main organizers of the cultural life of his time. Apart from its interesting narrative production, are reminded by their brilliant work in front of the literary salon that he ran at the Arsenal library, meeting point between the main French romantic writers of the first half of the 19th century.

He attended his primary and secondary studies in his hometown, where, at sixteen years of age (1796), founded the "secret society" of the Philadelphes, which integrated some of their colleagues of the Central School of the Department of Doubs. His lively intellectual curiosity - in addition to writer, was a Grammarian, bibliophile, entomologist, journalist and literary critic - led him to become involved with enthusiasm in everything that was going to her around, including poisoned politics of his time. After the coup of 18 Brumaire in 1799, which led to the power to Napoleón Bonaparte (1769-1821), expressed their discontent at the failure of the revolution through a violent Ode to, released under the eloquent title "La Napolèone", led to his arrest and incarceration in the prison of Sainte-Pélagie, which came out to be sent to other prisons for several months.

Once restored freedom, he left his native Besançon and settled in Paris (1800), with the firm intention to devote themselves to literary creation. Thus the things, at the beginning of the 19th century gave to print his first novel, Les outlaw (outlaws, 1802), in which, inspired by his philological studies, claims were made public its first literary, still linked to the classical aesthetic that had dominated in the last century. A year later, his hobby to esoteric studies and secret societies, coupled with his bold but reckless militancy in the ranks of the anti-napoleonica cause, gave rise to his enemies accuse him of be preparing a plot against the Government of Bonaparte, so was rearrested and subject to imprisonment. Released during a revolt of the peasantry, he abruptly fled Paris and took refuge in the mountains of the Jura Mountain range, where it remained hidden for some time until he considered that its political significance had already forgotten.

Again in Paris, he resumed his literary activity and published the novel Le peintre de Salzbourg (the Salzburg painter, 1803) - clearly influenced by the sorrows of Young Werther (1774), of Goethe (1749-1832), German as easily detaches from its subtitle: Journal des emotions d' a c? ur souffrant (Journal of the emotions of a heart suffering)-, as well as the brief narrative Le dernier chapitre de mon roman (the last chapter of my novel1803) in which were patent traces of that literature libertine who had had so much acceptance in the France of the age of enlightenment. More and more integrated in the Parisian intellectual and artistic life in 1814 reached the post of editor at the Journal des débats, where it was noted by the sharpness of his literary criticism, which were slowly emphasizing their unstoppable evolution towards the emerging romantic spirit. However, this clear orientation towards the cultivation of literary creation not led him to lose his interest in political life, which remained involved when it established the so-called rule of the hundred days (from March 2 until June 22, 1815); During this brief reappearance of Napoleon in Paris, again in charge of the destiny of France, Charles Nodier remained away from the French capital.

Towards the end of the second decade of the 19th century, their allegiance to romanticism was well clear in his novel titled Jean Sbogar (1818), written under the influence of another German work - drama bandits (1781), Schiller (1759-1805) - and fraught with libertarian ideas. But his definitive consecration as one of the major supporters of the new romantic aesthetics came from the hand of his novel Smarra ou les demons de nuit (Smarra or the demons of the night, 1821), an original repertoire of funeral and macabre elements whose main originality lay in the presentation of the dreamy sensations as a source of knowledge. A year later, elaborating on his conception of dreams as a corrective of the false reality known during the Vigil, published an interesting brief narration, Trilby ou le lutin d'Argail (Trilby or the Goblin of Argil, 1822), which fully confirmed his interest, within the aesthetic postulates defended by the first romantics, in esoteric and fantastic literature.

In 1824, coinciding with the elevation to the throne of France of the last monarch of the House of Bourbon, Carlos X (1757-1836), Charles Nodier, who was greeted with enthusiasm his reign, was appointed Librarian of the count of Artois. In front of the rich and varied library of the Arsenal, the writer of Besançon developed an intense work of cultural promotion that ended up turning her literary salon in the main meeting point and center of activity of the French romantic authors. This buoyant period in his career, social, intellectual and creative - endorsed by the publication of some works as worthy of praise as his Dictionnaire universel of the langue française (universal dictionary of the French language, 1824), your Bibliothèque philological study sacrée grecque - latine Moise à saint Thomas d'Aquin (Greco-Roman sacred library, from Moses to Santo Tomás de Aquino, 1826), his collection of original verses poésies diverses (different poems1827) and his drama Faust (Faust, 1828) - was interrupted at the beginning of the Decade of the 1930s, by the emergence of a series of serious psychic alterations caused by their nature unstable and depressed, and exacerbated by economic difficulties and loving failures that, in recent times, had fattened on it. In his collection of factual texts gathered under the title of Reveries littéraires, morales et fantastiques (dreams literary, moral, and fantastic, 1832) can be seen clearly bitterness and pessimism that had taken over his person, ruled in those years by a grim visionary spirit that only sensed certain escape routes to salvation in the fantastic fables trumped by his powerful breath imaginative.

In the midst of these nervous breakdowns, Charles Nodier continued, however, producing a vast work of creation, study and reflection which, fed by his breadth of knowledge, made him one of the most illustrious polygraphs of his time. Among its latest contributions to fantasy literature, it should be remember some such narrations within this genus as La fée aux miettes (the fairy of the crumbs, 1832), Ines of the Sierras (1837) and the Chandeleur (Candlemas, 1838 novel) neuvaine.

Other works not cited in previous paragraphs are the entitled Dissertation sur l'usage des antennes dans les insectes (1798), Pensées de Shakespeare extraites de ses ouvrages (1800), Bibliographie entomologique, ou catalogue des ouvrages relatifs aux insectes (1801), Prophetie contre Albion (1804), Les essais d' a jeune barde (1804), Les Tristes, Mélanges learned ou des tablettes d' a suicidé (1806), Apotheoses et imprécations de Pythagore (1807)Stella ou les outlaw, suivi d'autres nouvelles (1808), Questions de littérature légale (1811), La Napoleone (1814), Histoire des sociétés secrètes dans l' armée (1815), Napoleon et ses constituciones (1815), Le vingt et a janvier (1816), Thérèse Aubert (1819), Adele (1820), Lord Rutheven, ou les vampires (1820), Le vampire (melodrama, 1820), Mélanges de littérature et of critique (1820), Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l'ancienne France (1820)Romans, nouvelles et Mélanges (1820), Bertram, ou le Château de Saint-Aldobrand (tragedy, 1821), Promenade de Dieppe aux montagnes d' Écosse (1821), Le Delateur (drama, 1821), Bertram (comedy, 1821), Essai sur le gaz hydrogène et les divers modes d' éclairage artificiel (1823), Mélanges learned d'une petite Bibliothèque (1829), Histoire du roi de Bohême et de ses sept Châteaux (1830), Souvenirs, episodes et portraits pour servir à l'histoire de la Révolution et de l'empire (1831), Mademoiselle de Marsan (1832), Souvenirs de jeunesse (1832), Le dernier banquet des Girondins (1833), Souvenirs et portraits (1833-1835), La Péninsule, tableau pittoresque (1835), Contes in prose et vers (1835), La Saone et ses bords (1835-1836), La Seine et ses bords (18356-1837), Veillees de famille (18356-1837), Paris historique (1837-1840), Les quatre talismans et la Légende de s? ur Béatrix (1838), Souvenirs et portraits of the Revolution (1841)Nouvelles, vieilles et nouvelles (1842), Description d'une jolie collection de livres (1843), Trésor des Fèves et fleur des pois (1844), Le Bonhomme (1844) genie, chien Le de Brisquet (1844), Journal de l'expedition des portes de fer (1844) and Franciscus column (1844).

Mention aside deserves the linguistic work of Charles Nodier, primarily focusing on lexicographical works. Among them, it is advisable to quote the titled Dictionnaire Raisonné des onomatopees Françaises (1808), Archéologie ou système universel des langues (1810), Dictionnaire de langue écrite (1813), Dictionnaire universel de la langue française (1824), exam critique des dictionnaires (1828) and Notions Élémentaires de linguistique (1834). A regret that in his youth was very critical of the Académie Française, in its stage of maturity arose on several occasions to the select club of the "Immortals", which was rejected in various votes until, finally, he was elected in the celebrated on 24 October 1833. Received by Jouy (1769-1846) on 26 December 1834, he worked hard in the Commission of the dictionary and was one of the main supporters of the incorporation of Victor Hugo (1802-1885) and Alejandro Dumas (1802-1870). Upon his death, his position was occupied by Prosper Mérimée (1803-1870).