Biography of Nurhaci (1559-1626)

Caudillo manchu, born in the year 1559, and died in 1626, unified various tribes of his people and founded the future Chinese dynasty Qing, whose successors, after his death, conquered the Ming Empire and gave start to the manchu period (1644-1912).

As one of the numerous tribal Princes of the tungu town or jurchida, Nurhaci was acquiring preponderance in the bosom of the manchu nation, established at the North-East of the great wall of china, as it was winning on the battlefield all rivals, both Manchu and Mongolian, or advantageous business stratagems by alliances, until in 1583 he got a total hegemony. The military success of Nurhaci lived largely on the effectiveness of the "flags", created by it in 1601. These units, the real backbone of the future manchu army, grouped not only the men's weapons, but their families, servants or slaves, who were in charge of the supply; This was preserved the tribal structure, but added at the same time increased mobility and autonomy to their military campaigns. Successively, the flags incorporated contingents not Manchu, allowing Nurhaci to integrate with relative ease to the subjugated peoples, and thereby ensure the allegiance of tribal chiefs.

Although already in 1607 had proclaimed "kan", in a clear demonstration of its hegemonic intentions on all the Manchu tribes and collect the legitimizing inheritance of the ancient Mongol warlords, Nurhaci went one step further in this aspiration to grant Hou Chin (Chin last) name to his clan, which meant also assume a dynastic title linked to the old jurchidas. At the same time, he proclaimed their rights to the "mandate of heaven", thus manifesting its claim to aspire to the imperial throne. However, their political strategy was not limited only to the ceremonial ground. Strongly influenced by the splendor of the Ming China, Nurhaci led the cultural exchange with its powerful neighbor to the South, copied his system of Government with an administration centralized, aware of how valuable that that instrument was for control of the territory, and adopted many of their rules and formal formulas. Their flags also benefited from china advanced military technology, which had its strength in artillery and siege tactics, and even placed on senior members of his own Government advisors and Chinese technicians.

To 1615 Nurhaci had erected virtually on the one Lord of Manchuria and had greatly strengthened the structures of the Manchu State created by himself, then decided to take the offensive against the Ming Empire: in 1618 he crossed the great wall and conquered the Fushun (current province of Liaoning) square, a year following defeated an army sent to arrest him, and in 1621 he besieged and managed to pay Mukden (present Shenyang), where shortly afterwards moved his capital (1625). The death shocked a year later when he was about to advance on Korea, being succeeded by one of his sons, Abahai (1626-1643).