Lawyer and American politician born the Hawaii on August 4, 1961. On November 4, 2008 was elected the 44th President of his country, the first black to hold that high office. He took office on January 20, 2009. In October 2009, he was selected by the Royal Academy of Sweden to receive Nobel Peace Prize.
Barack Obama was born in the city of Honolulu in Hawaii, in the United States, in a multiracial family. His father, Barack Obama Sr., came from Siaya, a district of Kenya, and his mother, named Ann Durham, of Wichita, Kansas. Both had College degrees, the father, a professorship in economics at Harvard University, and mother a professorship of Anthropology from the University of Hawaii at Manoa, city in which the parents of the political future met.
When Obama son was two years old, his parents separated. The father traveled to complete his career at Harvard, and then went to Kenya, making it difficult to contact. In fact, Obama was ten years old when he met with his father during a trip to Kenya, this would be the last chance to do so, since his father died in 1982 in a traffic accident.
The family moved to Jakarta, Indonesia, by the second marriage of his mother with Lolo Soetoro, where the young Obama attended class until the age of 10. At that age, the family decided to send him to live with his maternal grandparents, and traveled back to Honolulu, Hawaii. There he continued with his studies until his graduation in secondary in 1979. His mother returned in 1972, but again moved to Indonesia to carry out field work in his career. He died of ovarian cancer in 1995.
Obama embarked on the career of law at Harvard Law School, and graduated from Columbia University. He collaborated in community work and practiced as a lawyer in civil law, his first job was for the Business International Corporation, today owned by the financial and publishing The Economist, based in London. From June 1985 to May 1988 he worked in a community development project, with the aim of improving the conditions of life and study of the members of the Catholic community in the southern part of the city of Chicago.
He then did a three week trip to Europe, and then five weeks for Kenya, where he met his family by her father. Upon return, he worked in the magazine of the Harvard University law, and was its first director of black race, in charge of 80 editors of the publication, which earned him a recognition that transcended and was reiterated in several publications. In 1991, he graduated with honors at Harvard, obtaining the title of Doctor of jurisprudence or Juris Doctor (JD) and the qualification of Magna Cum Laude.
Thanks to a research grant awarded by the University of Chicago, began to write a book about race relations, which has evolved in a personal memoir, subsequently published in 1995 under the name of dreams from my father (Dreams of my Father). Worked in a non-profit organization called project vote (Project Vote), in which managed to register 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans to vote in the State of Illinois, work which deserved to be named most outstanding among professionals under 40 years of age, person (40 Under Forty).
He continued devoting time to organizations for the welfare of the people, founding Public Allies (allies public), dedicated to the youth leadership development, managing in the Woods Fund of Chicago philanthropic organization, the Joyce Foundation charitable foundation, the Chicago Annenberg Challenge organization, advising on a Committee of lawyers from Chicago in favor of civil rights, and collaborating with the Lugenia Burns Hope Center Foundation.
He ran, and was elected for three periods, as Senator for the State of Illinois from 1997 to 2004. He also worked as Professor of constitutional law at the University of Chicago from 1992 to 2004. It failed to gain a seat in the House of representatives in 2000, but he announced his campaign for national Senator from Illinois in January 2003. The following year he was in charge of transmitting the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004, and in November of that year he was elected Senator with 70% 25 of the vote, becoming the first African-American to represent the Democratic Party race Senator. His opponent, Republican Alan Keyes, received 27% 25 of the votes cast, this difference being the largest in all history of elections to Illinois Senator.
He assumed his duties on 4 January 2005. As a legislator he propelled the Energy Policy Act, Act of energy policy, which sets out changes to combat growing energy problems, including taxes and deductions for different forms of various types of energy production, the so-called Coburn-Obama Transparency Act, or act of transparency, by means of which you can see, every year, in what the money which the United States Government collects from taxpayers is spenton the website www.usaspending.gov.Propuso Americans in the "civil war of others' military, presence also a law in 2007 for a reduction of troops in Iraq, to gradually decrease as stated in reference to the 2002 Foreign Affairs report entitled the civil war of others (Somebody Else´s Civil War). Yours is the signing of an amendment to the Electoral law to prevent and punish fraudulent practices in the electoral process.
On February 10, 2007, Obama launched his official candidacy to represent the Democratic Party in presidential elections to be held in November 2008. His rival in the race, by the same party, was the Senator and former first lady Hilary Rodham Clinton. The site that chose to give his candidacy was on the steps of the old Capitol in Springfield, Illinois, building the same when in 1858 Abraham Lincoln delivering the famous speech known as A House Divided (a house divided). Throughout his election campaign, Obama stressed the importance of 3 priorities that focus to change to reach the Presidency: the conclusion of the Iraq war, increasing energy independence of the United States and provide health care for all.
His campaign funds established new records of revenue, in the first half of 2007 brought $ 58 million, of which donations of less than $200 reached 16.4 million total. Never has had collected so much money from small contributors, nor in so little time. In January 2008, the Democratic Party reached 36.8 million, collect as many in be gathered ever in just a month's campaign.
During the development of the campaign, and while Obama led the by-elections by State, with more than 20 delegates of difference than its rival Clinton, emerged in March 2008 a controversy caused by some recordings that the ABC television network aerated to the public. The images were preaching racial and politically loaded of the Catholic priest Jeremiah Wright, the former pastor of Obama over the past 20 years. At first, Obama defended the relationship with Wright, but then came to condemn their views and subsequently resigned from the Trinity United Church, to avoid the impression that he shared the views of that organization.
During the months of April to June, Obama was harvesting triumphs and adding more delegates than his opponent, even while on 31 May the Democratic National Committee reduced the representation of Florida and Michigan half voting by delegate, reducing the benefit and at the same time forcing the candidates to win by a margin greater.
On 3 June 2008, with effected count the delegates Democrats in all districts, Barack Obama proclaimed his victory speech, and Senator Clintonaccepted the results of June 7. Since that day, the campaign focused to prevail in the opinion of the voters to beat Republican candidate John McCain. August 23, Obama named Senator of Delaware, Joe Biden, an expert in international relations, as a running mate for the post of the vice presidency of the country. The 28th of the same month spoke to 84 thousand people, and was seen by more than 38 million viewers, in the official discourse of acceptance of his candidacy in that said what would be its political goals.
Obama and Michelle Robinson met at a law firm, where they shared tasks in June 1989, and at the end of the summer began their relationship, committed in 1991 and married on October 3, 1992. Daughters Malia Ann and Natasha were born in 1998 and 2001, respectively. The family, who lived in the neighborhood of Hyde Park in Chicago, moved to his current residence in the Kenwood neighborhood.
Since Bill Clinton declared in an interview that tested marijuana during their university studies 'but without swallowing the smoke', possible drug use became subject of debate of presidential candidates in the United States. In this regard, Obama acknowledged having consumed alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his years in high school, and later described this consumption "great moral failure" youth in a debate during the civil forum for the Presidency, inside a church.
The influence of the religion during the formative years of Obama can say at least that was varied. In one of his books, the audacity of hope (The Audacity of Hope) explained that he was not raised in a religious home, that her mother was also educated by parents not practitioners, although his Kenyan father practicing the Islamic faith, and his Indonesian stepfather described religion as "something particularly useless", and that once Obama came to confess as an atheist in front of his motherWhen worked as a community organizer in collaboration with churches, was able to understand, he said, "the power of the religious Afro American tradition to stimulate social change". For almost 20 years he attended with his family homilies at Trinity United Church, Catholic, even that in 2008 he resigned publicly to the congregation by the controversial opinions of the leader of the Congregation.
The Obama family was composed of members from varied backgrounds, both in the racial and cultural. Add a new relative in the figure of his stepfather, resident in Indonesia, due to the original core of American mother born in Kansas, and father immigrant arrived from Kenya, which had seven Kenyan brothers and a sister of indonesia. Perhaps this rich family heritage were the reasons for your genealogical search in several of his works, mainly in dreams from my father, which tracked its American predecessors to the first aborigines, and even discovered that they could be related with the hero of the Civil War, Jefferson Davis.
Barack Obama declared economic heritage consisted mainly in a property resides with his family, around 1.3 million dollars, according to the statement of income of the year 2007. Their annual income, taken together with his wife, are approaching the $ 4.2 million, money mostly from the sale of his books.
In an emotional ceremony attended by 2 million people in Washington, D.C., and countless millions who followed it on television in the rest of the world, Obama became the new Acting President, to his oath on January 20, 2009. In his speech he said that "change has come", and without denying that his country was immersed in a profound crisis, both in the labour, economic spectrum of health, education, employment of energy and moral reservations, said that "has come the time to reaffirm our spirit of resistance," knowing "that the greatness of a country is never a gift", but you have to earn it".
The next day, the first of its functions, signed decrees which should close the Guantanamo prison within a year and accelerate the withdrawal of U.S. troops stationed in Iraq. Also stated that she ask the Pentagon to organize the sent of a major contingent of troops to Afghanistan, where United States kept until the moment the amount of 33,000 troops, increasing its number with a reinforcement of 17,000 soldiers more. In one of his first decisions in relation to the issue of the international financial crisis, President Obama reduced by Decree the income of executives at financial firms to $500,000, nearly 400,000 euros, per year.
In the month of February 2009, with the brand new post, Barack Obama traveled to the neighboring country Canada, following a tradition common to many American Presidents, to establish a "good neighbor" policy. Between the two countries have trade largest in the world, ranging at around € 1.2 billion per day.During the month of March, the President opened new roads in messages to other Governments, as the video issued on 21 March, by which invited a new '' dialogue without threats,"Iran's Government, although the response to the next day's leader Ali Khameneiwas bombastic. Answered questions submitted over the Internet, which were voted for 3.6 million people, among other gestures in favour of the approach of the Government resort to his people.
In May 2009, President Obama announced the creation of a Fund of aid for poor countries to combat AIDS and malaria of 47.300 million euros, restored the functions of military tribunals at Guantanamo, as the solution to end the trial detainees, before closing the prison. During that month, Benjamín Netanyahu visited the White House, and not agreed against calls for President Obama to accept the creation of a Palestinian State, and also resisted orders to stop the expansion of the settlements in Palestinian territories. In the economic aspect, he signed a law that manufacturers of cars in his country must increase mileage per liter of gasoline and at the same time reduce the gaseous pollutants emitted. In terms of civil rights, chose Sonia Sotomayor, a Hispanic judge, to integrate the United States Justice Supreme Court.
In the month of June 2009, the President's visit to Saudi Arabia, highlighted the commitment of his administration to establish a new relationship with the Muslim world, based on the mutual respect. Also opened a deep financial reform to his country which has imposed new rules of State intervention, regulation of markets and protection of investors, to avoid recurrence of situations of chaos in the money markets. It decided to re-establish diplomatic ties with Syria, which had been interrupted since the death of Rafik Hariri, and consider important to the region for the American foreign agenda. The political events in Iran and Honduras, claimed a statement of opposition to repression in the Iranian case and rejection of the coup, in the case of the Latin American country.
At the beginning of the month of September, in the midst of the campaign from the American President, advocating for health reform in his country, resigned his environment Advisor. September 16, 2009 President Obama broke the Covenant whereby it would install anti-missile shields in several countries of Eastern Europe, to the good signs from the reduction of the threat of Iran. The President met in New York with Mahmoud Abbás and Benjamín Netanyahu, and urged them that they would definitely bring their positions to reach a peace agreement. The UN Security Council, President Obama launched a speech in favour of disarmament and the threat posed by the arms to the world, and on September 30 announced the implementation of a special investment devoted to research for a value of 3.5 billion euros that will go exclusively to science, medicine, equipment and improvement of laboratories.
October 2009 was for the President of the United States an early recognition of his work, to be named to receive the prize Nobel Peace Prize, for "his efforts in a multilateral democracy" and for his "vision of a world without nuclear weapons". It surprised the distinction, many media considered it premature, since Obama had failed or one year in office. Also in October, was the opening of a consultation service of all events of the Obama Office on the http://www.whitehouse.gov/espanol site. The President announced the investment of 2.3 billion euros to modify the power supply incorporating new renewable energy sources and implementation of credits for hybrid cars.
In November, the President of the United States manages to pass the draft law on the reform of public health, with a low of votes difference at the Congress of his country. There was movement of warships of the two Koreas, who exchanged shots at sea, with 1 dead and 3 injured, days before President Obama trip to the region. The President began a visit to Japan, which made clear the important role of the Asian country in the development and the stability of that part of the world, for what strengthened ties and signed agreements on nuclear proliferation, climate change and military support in Afghanistan. During his visit to China, he responded to some students about the value of freedom of information and of thought, as human rights of universal value. The interview was not broadcast on Chinese television. At the conclusion of that visit, Obama urged the Government it to revalue its currency, the yuan, to establish more balanced trade relations with the rest of the world. On his return to the country, received with all the honors Mammohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, visited the White House, where he signed agreements for Exchange of information to prevent the advance of terrorism, among other issues. End of the month, Obama said, on the eve of the meeting on global warming in Copenhagen, have a 17% reduction plan 25 of polluting gases, and in line with this announcement, China said that it will reduce 40% 25 per point of GDP until 2020.
In December, President Obama announced that his country will definitely leave Afghanistan, from the year 2011, and that sending 30,000 more soldiers, you need to start to organize the tasks of gradual withdrawal of materials, equipment and people. It also proposed that 135 billion euros for building plans will be destined to the employment, and achieved one of its main objectives, announced in the campaign, the reform of the American health system, which left without attention to more than 60 million people.
Protection Act were passed in 2010 to the patient and the Dodd-Frank Act of financial reform and consumer protection and affordable health care, among the more important; While in 2011, he emphasized the law's Control of the budget. In international politics it put an end to the war in Iraq, signed the new arms control treaty with Russia (START III) and ordered us military intervention in the conflict in Libya. On May 1, 2011 Media announced the killing of the terrorist Osama bin Laden by a group of special forces of the U.S. Navy.
On April 4, 2011 Obama announced the start of his presidential re-election for the 2012 campaign. The election is scheduled for November 6, 2012.
http://www.whitehouse.gov/ ; Official website of the White House.