Writer Spanish, born in A Coruña on September 15, 1851, and died in Madrid on May 12, 1921, which is considered one of the most important literary personalities of the 19th century and represents the most outstanding figure of Spanish naturalism, movement whose ideology and aesthetic defended in his articles. In his two major novels (pazos de Ulloa and mother nature) it departed from the more gruesome aspects of this movement, and already in his last works style led to a novel with idealistic and religious elements. He/She received the title of Countess of hands of Alfonso XII in 1908.
Emilia Pardo Bazán belonged to a family of Galician aristocracy who resided at the pazo de Meirás. Daughter of lawyer, obtained from girl education in a French school where he/she learned the language of that country, which would later open the door of the new end-of-century literary movements. Since his youth, his interest in the reading of the classics was decisive for his training as a writer; the influence of works such as the Bible, the Iliad or Don Quixote, is already perceived in his early writings. These readings were gradually accompanied by the works of the most representative poets of that time, such as Zorrilla, Duke of Rivas, Quintana, Musset and Victor Hugo.
In 1868, date that occurred the liberal revolution in Spain known as "The glorious" (see revolution of 1868) the young Emilia, with 15 years, promised José Quiroga and Pérez de Deza, young aristocrat and law student. The same year both got married and moved to Santiago de Compostela, where he/she studied the young Pérez de Deza. A year later, the father of the writer, José Pardo Bazán - that of former belonged to the liberal party of Salustiano Olozoga-, he/she was elected Deputy by the constitutional courts, so the couple also moved to Madrid. In this new stage of his life, the young writer began to converse in a myriad of matritenses talks with writers, artists and politicians of the time. But soon the consequences of the above-mentioned revolution forced the family to leave Spain and travel to various European countries - England, Italy, Germany or France - where the writer did not lose the opportunity to improve their knowledge of languages. In France treated directly with part of the French intelligentsia, Victor Hugo, Zola, Daudet, etc., intellectual who in future dates visited frequently.
In 1876 the young writer presented his critical essay from the works of father Feijoo to a contest at the University of Oviedo, where he/she went, in addition, Concepción Arenal, another historical woman from nineteenth. Get this award helped Emilia Pardo Bazán to orient his literary career, not as a chimera, but with the reaffirmation of their literary knowledge. Then, he/she published his only book of poems, Jaime, dedicated to his newborn son, whose verses were praised by Francisco Giner of the Ríos, friend of the family. Your Christian vocation - confessed "neocatolica" Although he/she practiced an unorthodox Catholicism, especially in his last creative period - and its progressive linkage with the literature led him to publish a few articles, including the didactic and scholar, on "The Christian epics" in the Christian Science Journal. In them, Emilia Pardo Bazán intelligently analyzed the work of writers such as Dante and Tasso, which was linked to Christianity. In addition to these literary texts, clearly moralizing, he/she also published a few studies about Darwinism that brought together under the title "Scientific thoughts on Darwinism", in whose development was already perceived his approach to theories European (such as determinism), closely related to the French naturalism.
In recent years gained a space in newspapers and magazines of his time. I collaborated with La Aurora de Galicia, while he/she began the publication in Spain magazine - directed by J. Lazarus- its first novel Pascual López, autobiography of a student of Medicine (1879), novel presented in a fragmented way and that surprised the critics, puzzled before a novel signed by a woman who did not hide his name under a pseudonym and wrote in a scholarly manner, to the classic mode. Although the novel was praised almost generally, the truth is that it did still meet realistic budgets of its time, within the current represented by authors such as Alarconand Galdos , Valera, although already certain naturalistic notes is peeped. The novel, like many of the era, had a box is depicted the decline of a family of aristocracy, but at the same time the influence of a moderate scientism, recurrent in many writers ascribed to the new European fashion was remarkable.
A year later, in 1880, Emilia Pardo Bazán was marching to a spa situated in the town of Vichy, given a liver ailment who was suffering from a long. There, under cover of total silence and rest, he/she began reading Émile Zola (specifically in his novel L'Assommoir), and gradually increased his interest in French naturalism. His scholarly study published in 1882 San Francisco de Asís, which was praised by Menéndez Pelayo. Almost at the same time, Pardo Bazán published his second novel, product of their long breaks in the seaside resort of Vichy, entitled a journey of bride and groom, a realistic work which are perceived naturalistic touches already more defendants than in his first. Also in 1882 was born his daughter Carmen.
Although he/she embraced shamelessly naturalistic aesthetics, on the other hand would you disappear without denuedos of the determinism characteristic of the work of Zola, because his Catholicism should have it on other roads. With this it was clear that the direction of the literary work of Emilia Pardo Bazán was in many ways: although interested in the new mode of romanticize French literature and was attracted by the new naturalistic fashion, also was linked to the hagiographic literature and scholarly. In short, there was already a literary personality who escaped, with logic, the prejudices that criticism was the writers.
To November 1882, Emilia Pardo Bazán began to publish at the time some critical texts fragmented into chapters, whose generic title, after its publication, was throbbing. In these articles, Pardo Bazán was exposing the naturalistic theories. It was, then, all of a manifesto published in book form, in which the writer rushing the in-depth study of this aesthetic turn. The book, published in 1883, summed up perfectly the intellectual concerns of this writer, who soon earned the respect of all the intellectuals of end of the century, including of own Clarin, who even came to write a foreword to the book, which he/she soon repented given bad relations that have emerged between the writers. The writer continued to travel, now more frequently, to France, where continued contact with the own Zola or Victor Hugo, Daudet. The latter praised the throbbing question, which had been brilliantly translated into French by Alberto Savine, personal friend of Zola and Pardo Bazán.
Since 1893, the naturalistic aesthetics had been taken with clarity by some Spanish writers, as it can be seen in some aspects of one of the most important Spanish works of the century: La Regenta, in Clarín. However, if someone could be considered the leader of this aesthetic was certainly Emilia Pardo Bazán. Indeed, it was the coruñesa writer who received the attacks of the writers most representative of the Spanish nineteenth, as Varela, who believed that the writer "scrubbed it with the French"-, Menéndez Pelayo or Pereda, who did not assimilate well his Magisterium and was accused of sticking too much to European fashions.
In 1895 the work of Pardo Bazán took an unexpected turn towards social issues with the novel La Tribuna, a fictional fresh referring a history, with decals social, end of the century, driven by the consequences of the revolution of 1968. In it, he/she addressed issues such as the political crisis, the labor movement, women's rights or the demands of workers. It was one of the first social novels published, according to specialists such as Carmen Bravo-Villasante. But in addition, the Tribune was his first fully naturalistic work. After this book, followed the production of Galician with one minor work, the Swan of Vilamorta (1885), at the time who collaborated on another important medium, El Imparcial. On the pages of this publication were given continuous controversies surrounding the new aesthetics, new European literatures in vogue, especially the French and Russian, with was ardent admirer Galician writer.
Emilia Pardo Bazán returned to French lands in 1886, increasingly convinced that it was link between what was happening on one side of the Pyrenees. This time he/she summoned with the brothers, Edmond and Jules Goncourt, Huysmans and, above all, Zola, who already considered a celebrity to the Spanish writer. In addition, due to his interest in the Russian novel was published an essay entitled the revolution and the Russian novel, which collected works already published in the pages of literary magazines. The publication of these articles generated a harsh controversy, when the writer was accused by F. De Icaza of plagiarizing a similar book by E. M. Vogue French entitled Le Roman Ruse. Aside from the controversy with the critical accuser, many writers of his time, such as for example Juan Varela, did not accept the importance of Tolstoy, Turgenev and Gogol.
In 1886 a third stage in the novel's author, opened with the publication of Los Pazos de Ulloa, a novel set in the Galician countryside, as well as its sequel still life (1888). The writer described in both the world of the manors in rural Galicia, and thereby the lives of many people from the scope of the rural estates. The manors of Ulloa, one of the masterpieces of Spanish 19th, and perhaps the best work of Pardo Bazán, explored the territories of this rural area, where there is a confrontation between nature and civilization. This, referring more to political and social aspects, is joining with a complex conception of love relationships. In the work there is also some bipolarization between the protagonists, Nucha and don Pedro (her husband), posed a problem of moral nature, immersed in the primitivism of many of the characters in the novel, as Sabel or Primitivo.
The story started in this work remained in mother nature (1888), in which the rural world acquired one greater dimension, to tell the author the moral and physical collapse of the main character, Gabriel Pardo, an aristocratic gentleman rundown. This time the couple of the novel, Manuela-Perucho, adolescents and children of primitive characters from the earlier novel, had a stormy relationship lived under the protection of the terrible nature and his uncommon strength, well above the characters, who are always at your mercy.
The prestige obtained with the publication of these novels, essential in Spanish naturalism, allowed Pardo Bazán collaborate with one of the most important and influential of that time journals: the modern Spain, directed by his friend Lázaro Galdiano; This ended up alienating with Clarin, since the great author of La Regenta too took their articles of the novels of the writer. This collaboration with Emilia Pardo Bazán trip to Paris, from where he/she sent some chronicles the daily agreed. From here arose later volume at the foot of the Eiffel Tower, presenting all its Parisian Chronicles. In 1889 were published two new novels of the writer: isolation and homesickness, which were harshly criticized by Clarin, Pereda and Palacio Valdés. The three took the opportunity to discredit the writer, presenting the novels as "pornographic" in the eyes of the public, as both reflected the naked feeling of a woman to her lover (in the case of heat stroke) or to their land (in the case of homesickness).
The death of his father in 1890 the author plunged into a kind of depression. With the money that had inherited it was decided to launch a literary magazine which he/she called new theatre critic - in honor the father Feijoo- who was on the street during the period 1891-1893. In this journal - unique in its time - Galician writer wrote all the articles, from scholars studies and Chronicles of theatrical releases to critiques of works of his time. In 1893, the tiredness could with the author, who decided to leave this extraordinary company.
In the time that lasted for this publication, the author did not many works printing. It closed its naturalistic stage with cornerstone, a work far closer to the postulates of Zola. He/She describes a sordid and marginal world in which a woman of a Carter and her lover to commit a crime of passion. In these years he/she collaborated with El Imparcial and the French magazine Fortnightly Review and it was a candidate to occupy a Chair of the Academia de la Lengua, but was systematically turned down, so he/she decided to withdraw his name from the lists of possible academic; No woman was admitted to the Academy to very advanced 20th-century although Pardo Bazán, Concepción Arenal or Gómez de Avellaneda were very close to get it. The writer moved towards a tenacious campaign in favour of the woman who did not abandon until his death. Thus, articles around women, their rights, their virtues, shortcomings would multiply. On the contrary to what might seem, his name was increasingly more respected by intellectuals from turn of the century, although their quarrels with Clarin, Palacio Valdés or Pereda never ended.
Towards the end of the century, the writer went to engage more in the publication of stories than novels. They came to light volumes Marianela tales, tales of Christmas or new stories, works that would turn it into one of the most important stories of his generation writers. Perhaps the most representative collection of stories published in these years was entitled sacros-profanos tales, whose aesthetics are headed toward certain uglyism, so characteristic of modernist literature turn. In the middle of this short experience, the Galician writer decided to write (and brand new) Theatre, one of their top passions. From 1898 he/she premiered the truth, downhill or wedding dress, but his failure was total. It was not very successful in their theatrical approaches and succumbed to the fierce criticism of his time. His relentless quest to get to know other cultures led her, in 1902, to visit the Netherlands. At the time growing their most radical feminism, also his neocatolicismo did. He/She published a book entitled a Catholic Europe, where certain "civilizing Catholicism" warned of that experience. This book of travel stories the Galician author meant to transfer that Christian morality from the Netherlands to his country, which was in a special situation of political, social and economic collapse. Obviously also morally it was Spain, according to the author, at a critical moment.
At the beginning of century, and after the publication of a short novel not too interesting, mystery (just like Dumas), Pardo Bazán published La chimera, another of his great narrative achievements. Essentially naturalistic, though marked by spiritualist fashion that surrounded the novels of Galdós, the chimera was inspired by the life of the painter Vaamonde (a personal friend of the writer who painted a famous portrait of himself). In addition to this novel, his collaborations in journalistic and literary media are counted by dozens. He/She published in black and white, the Spanish illustration and American and artistic reading, among many others. His fame grew and filed, given its nature, friendship with young writers like Blasco Ibañez and Miguel de Unamuno, who invited her to his home in Salamanca, bringing a certain friendship between both around 1905. In fact, thanks to her, Unamuno began the publication of his articles about the man in the modern Spain magazine.
In 1906 he/she became headmistress of the literature section of the Ateneo de Madrid, place that was linked for some time. Famous were his speeches on that site, where exposed without delay on very diverse subjects: feminism, foreign literature, history, etc. From this time dates his close relationship with Oviedo writer Pérez de Ayala, who saw a model of intellectual who should follow without complexes in the writer. Also published in 1908 black siren and his book of literary criticism literary sketches and portraits. This year the King Alfonso XII awarded him the title of Countess, which, from that moment, the writer added to his signature: "Countess of Emilia Pardo Bazán". Then, given their political influence, in 1910 was appointed Minister of public works.
Sweet dream, published in 1911, is a novel that is emblematic in the whole of his literary work. A year later died her husband, which already had separated for years because he/she believed that marriage was incompatible with his work as a writer. In 1913 he/she published his last great literary work, the tale of Beelzebub, one of the immediate background of the grotesque vallinesclanesco, in the opinion of Bravo-Villasante, and also a peculiar book: old Spanish cuisine. In any case, his work in recent years focused on the creation of stories that were published in magazines and newspapers of the time (New World Bank and black the illustrations, etc.). For his political position in recent years received several awards such as the order of ladies Nobles of María Luisa or cross Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice (granted by the Pope), etc.
One of the latest relevant facts of his biography refers to their college experience. In 1916, through Julio Burell, Minister of public instruction, Pardo Bazan got the Chair of neo literatures of the Central University. However, their classes were losing students progressively (the margin that is enrolled few initially) to become a single enrolled. This discouraged the writer, who saw that he/she was not considered a teacher as others. Apart from this fact, his reputation as a capital letter writer did that new writers emerged around the Ateneo de Madrid embrace you. There are cases of Ruano González, Vicente Aleixandre or conglomerations poets, who used the Athenaeum as a means of expression for their avant-garde proclamations. In full intellectual maturity, Emilia Pardo Bazán died in Madrid, on May 12, 1921.
Considered a glory of Spanish literature, newspapers were considered his death reason of "National mourning". He/She was buried in the Church of the conception of Madrid and five years later was erected in his honor a statue in Princess Street, very close to his family home. Emilia Pardo Bazán was perhaps the largest ever Spanish writer. His works of modern French literature, Vol. IV, tales of land and religious pictures were published, posthumously, between 1923 and 1825.
Jaime, 1886. Pascual López, 1879. A honeymoon trip, 1881. San Francisco de Asís, 1882. The Gallery, 1982. The throbbing question, 1983. Vilamorta Swan, 1985. The manors of Ulloa, 1886. Mother nature, 1887. The revolution and the novel in Russia, 1887. My pilgrimage, 1888. My Earth, 1888. Homesickness, 1889. Heatstroke, 1889. A Christian, 1890. The test, 1890. The cornerstone, 1891. Tales of Marineda, 1892. Controversies and literary studies, 1892. Christmas tales, 1894. Christmas tales and Kings, 1898. Stories sacroprofanos, 1899. The chimera, 1905. Black siren, 1908. Modern French literature, 1910.
Complete works. Madrid, Aguilar, 1973. New heart-pounding issue. La Coruña, Librigal, 1975 (Edition of Varela Jácome and Baldomero Cores). The Spanish woman. Madrid, national Publishing House, 1981 (introduction and notes of Leda Schiavo). The Pazos de Ulloa. Madrid, Castalia, 1993 (Studio Marina Mayoral critic). The rostrum. Madrid, Cátedra, 1999 (Benito Varela Jácome study).
BAQUERO GOYANES, Mariano. The Spanish naturalist novel: Emilia Pardo Bazán. Murcia, University of Murcia, 1955.CLEMESSY, Nelly. Emilia Pardo Bazán as a novelist. Madrid, Fundación Universitaria Spanish, 1981.gonzalez TOREES, Rafael. The tales of Emilia Pardo Bazán. Boston, Florentia Publishers, 1977.OSBORNE, Robert E. Emilia Pardo Bazán, his life and his works. Mexico, Andrea, 1964.PATTISON, Walter T. Spanish naturalism, external history of a literary movement. Madrid, Gredos, JÁCOME, Benito 1973.VARELA: novelisticas structures of Emilia Pardo Bazán. Madrid, CSIC, 1973.