Biography of Pier Paolo Pasolini (1922-1975)

Italian film director born in Bologna on May 5, 1922 and died on November 2, 1975 in Ostia.

Son of a Lieutenant of infantry and a teacher, Pasolini had opportunity to travel throughout Italy, with his family from his native Bologna to Cremona, through Belluno, where his brother Guido was born in 1925. The obsessive relationship that Pasolini had with his mother would be reflected in worship that younger brother felt about it. However, these affections so narrow were called to end in tragedy. Pasolini was already known before devoting himself to the cinema. In 1928 he had begun to draw and write poetry, and all this early activity would you say that his childhood was over at the age of 13. At 17 he joined the Faculty of letters, University of Bologna, where would have chance to defend the native dialect from the magazine Stroligut. At age 19 he had already published poetry; but his intellectual activity would be marked by the outbreak of the war. His brother Guido was killed during the conflict violently and in strange circumstances: a prelude of what would later happen you own Paolo. The same year of the death of his brother, Pasolini graduated and settled in Friuli as a teacher. On October 15, 1949 was the first complaint that would begin a long journey of Pasolini by the courts. Accused of corruption of minors, the director was expelled from the Communist Party and moved to Rome, where will suffer poverty completely alone. Abandoned teaching, Pasolini continued to write poetry and, in 1955, was his first screenplay. This activity led him to Fellini, for whom he wrote the nights of Cabiria (1957).

Accattone (meaning "beggar", "beggar") is the pseudonym of Vittorio, a man who keeps a prostitute. It is also the title of the first movie of Pasolini as director. This directorial debut, including the passion according to St. Matthew, of Bach, dramatic accompaniment will be the hardest movie of Pasolini. The film, a complaint from the world of marginalization and despair, will be at the same time the first stone of the controversy which gave rise to the director until his death. Forbidden to minors under 18, Accattone rose wounds in the XXII Mostra of Venice and won the award for direction at the Karlovy Vary Festival.

In Mamma Roma (1962) he resumed prostitution as an excuse to claim social responsibility and attacking the bourgeois society. The Ricotta (cottage cheese), fragment included in Laviamoci il cervello (1962), tells the story of a man who keeps the meal of a film crew that last a film about the death of Christ. The fact that the guardian dies of indigestion on the cross made that in 1963 film was kidnapped and accused of "vilipendio to the religion of the State". Pasolini is defend arguing that his criticism would not directed to passion, but to bad faith.

A few months later, Gastone Ferranti producer asked him he became involved in a project with a particular theme: why our lives are dominated by the negative, including the war? Pasolini again took the opportunity to introduce classical music - this time the AlbinoniAdagio - and a new critique of gentrification. Rabies (1963) lashes out against barbarism, bigotry, prejudice. At the same time began to prepare two other projects: Comizi d'Amore (1964) and the Gospel according to St. Matthew (1964). With the first, Pasolini penetrated in another big taboo for the Italy of the time: sexuality; walked - in a prologue and three acts, as a documentary - the peninsula, from big cities to the countryside. The second was a manifesto of their own spirituality, which Pasolini qualify as "aesthetics". The version of Matthew is that focuses more on the human side of Jesus. Pasolini couldn't hit with critics and acolytes; or they could not hit him. The film was applauded by Catholic critics and won the Grand Award of the Office Catholic International the film in 1964. Left, however, treated him harshly. Meanwhile, Pasolini continued with its own ideology and charting a course nothing easy but decided. Purpose of the script by birds and Pajarracos (1966), Pasolini declared having written the text bearing in mind Marxism, but not entirely freed of an anarchic dye. By then already had clear interest of the director by non-professional actors, or rather, ordinary people who do not pretend to be who is not in front of the camera.

However, not everything was working absolutely independent in the career of Pasolini and isolated. In 1966, Dino de Laurentiis suggested him to participate together with other directors such as Visconti, Rosi or de Sica, in the witches (1966), a film that was taking place. The adventure of a father and a son, who after burying the dead mother embark on the search for the ideal woman, to be chosen by Pasolini under the title of the Earth seen from the moon. After a brief period in Morocco, between March and April 1967, Pasolini turned to participate in another project of De Laurentiis, Capriccio Italian. The episode of Pasolini, Che cosa sono le nuvole?, became a reflection on the meaning of human existence.

The text of Sophocles, Edipo Rey, inspired him with the contrast between innocence and the requirement of knowledge; Pasolini felt it as something autobiographical, and believed, as at almost all times, forced to question his contemporaries. At the 1968 Venice Mostra Pasolini presented two works. The first of these was theorem and Appunti per film sull'India, a medium-length film shot in Bombay and the surrounding area where the dialogues with ordinary people and intellectuals were occupying the same level. Again the left would face Pasolini; He was accused of reactionary by some and mysticism by others. Theorem would happen as a misunderstood film, although the subject was already old in the cinema of Pasolini: the portrait of the loss of identity of the bourgeoisie of the time. At the same time on that Pasolini was Che cosa sono le nuvole? He finished the sequenza dei fiori di letter, episode inscribed on film Amore e Rabbia (1969), in which also involved Bertolucci, Godard and Bellocchio, and which consisted of episodes inspired by the Gospel parables. Ignorance treated like guilt, that is the theme chosen by Pasolini, would appear again in Porcile (1969), a story with a single sentence in the script: "I killed my father, I have eaten human flesh, shiver of joy". Accustomed to the parallel job, during the elaboration of Appunti per film sull'India, Pasolini developed Appunti per an ' African Orestes (in an attempt to continue talking about religion and hunger in third world countries). Between May and August 1969, Pasolini confronted Medea with María Callas, who had already played the role on the world stage; Despite the content linking with the complaint to the power and the bourgeoisie, the release became an extraordinary event.

His next work was based on the tales of Boccaccio and was titled the Decameron (1970). In the deal, he met friends, relatives and intellectuals. The values of sexual vitality seemed to reach a wider audience this time and the film became a success of blockbuster, not only in Italy. The tales of Canterbury (1971) arrived as the second vertex of what the director called the trilogy della vita. Sex, love and death were common themes, but the latter is more present in the Canterbury Tales. The trilogy was completed with the thousand and one nights (1974), where sensuality remained the axis and where Pasolini argued for the poetry of images. While filming this movie, the director diverted part of their attention to a totally altruistic project. Le Mura di Sana'a ' was a documentary filmed in order to draw the attention of Unesco to save the ancient Yemeni capital. In 1975 Pasolini would roll his latest film: Salò or the 120 days of Sodom. With brutality and forced sex appears as a metaphor for contemporary times to the director. Inspired by the 120 days of Sodom, Sade, it was as the denunciation of the reduction of the body to a mere object.

There are few cases of such coherence between the life of the artist and his work. Pasolini was consistent with his ideology until the last moment of his life. When fascism appeared, the director left dazzle until he realized the true nature of his philosophy. The Communist Party not knew you give what you wanted. Its authenticity led him to make public his homosexuality through a relentless pursuit of young people in the most questionable districts. Dared to interpret religion and to denounce the power of the bourgeoisie. The morning of November 2, 1975, the body of Pasolini appeared terribly butchered on the beach of Ostia. The young Giuseppe Pelosi, according to the official version, suffered an attempted rape by Pasolini, although it stirred and killed with blows to the filmmaker, and was later charged with the murder in a process. However, many believe that the boy was a bait, and that the killers were several dark and their motives.

Of all the tributes and retrospectives that have been made of the director Bolognese highlights which were carried out on the occasion of 30 anniversary of his death, and among them should be recorded is the projection of the posthumous film of his friend and collaborator Sergio Citti, Pier Paolo Pasolini and the ragione di a sogno, which reinforced the thesis of a political assassination.

Filmography

Short films

1968: Appunti per film sull'India. 1970: Appunti per a romanzo nell'immondisni. 1971: Il muri di sana' to.

Feature films

1961: Accattone (and screenplay). 1962: Mamma Roma (and screenplay); Laviamoci il cervello (episode "La Ricotta"; screenplay). 1963: La Rabbia.1964: the Gospel according to St. Matthew (and screenplay); Comizi d'amore. 1965: Sopraluoghi in Palestina.1966: Witch (episode "The Earth seen from the Moon"); Birds and pajarracos (and screenplay). 1967: Oedipus, the son of actor (and Fortune). 1968: Capriccio all'italiana (episode "Che cosa sono le nuvole?"); Theorem (and screenplay). 1969: pigsty (and screenplay); Amne e rabbia (episode "the sequenza del fiore di carta"). 1970: Appunti per an ' African Orestes; Medea (and screenplay); The Decameron (also actor, screenwriter and songwriter); Appunti per a romanzo dell'immondeza. 1971: Tales of Canterbury (also an actor and scriptwriter). 1972: Dodici dicembre 1972.1974: the thousand and one nights (and screenplay). 1975: Salò or the 120 days of Sodom (and screenplay).

As screenwriter

1955: The girl in the rio.1956: the prigionero della montagna.1957: Marisa the Coquette; Cabiria.1958 nights: Giovani mariti.1959: La notte brava; Death of an amigo.1960: the long night of 43; A giornata balorda; The beautiful Antonio; The cantata delle maräne; Il carro armato dell ' 8 settembre.1961: La ragazza in vetrina.1962: the commare dry; A vita violenta.1969: Ostia.1973: Tales of Pasolini.

As an actor

1960: The Hunchback of Roma.1964: Il cinema of Pasolini; Palestinian in Sopraloughi per "Il vangelo secondo Matteo"; Comizi d'amore. 1967: Oedipus, the son of the fotuna.1968: Requiescant.1971: the decameron.1972: the Canterbury Tales.

Bibliography

RENTERO, J. C. et al.: dictionary of Directors, Madrid: Ediciones JC, 1992.

PASSEK, J. L. et al.: dictionary of cinema, Librairie Larousse, 1986, Spanish version of URABAYEN CASCANTE, M, Rialp, 1991.