Biography of Francesc Pi i Margall (1824-1901)

Lawyer and Spanish politician. Born in Barcelona in April 29, 1824 and died in Madrid on November 29, 1901. He was the son of a textile worker, Sergeant of the national militia. He was in the seminary from 1831 to 1837 and studied law. He was a member of the Philomathic society, where he met the leading figures of catalan romanticism. He collaborated in various newspapers and in the drafting of various works. He had to flee to France in 1866 due to its ideology. When he returned, he met three political groups prepared the overthrow of Isabel II: unionists, progressives and Democrats. The first provided, above all, military force and met about fifty officers who constituted most of the commanders of the army, and whose incorporation into the conspiracy, although late, was essential to achieve success. Progressives also represented a military force led by Prim which joined civilians linked to the Catalan industrial bourgeoisie; This group becomes the core of the revolutionary front. Finally, the Democrats, who had little military support but they had an important influence civil with popular support. Among the Democrats three non-ideological sectors were distinguished: the progresistas-disidentes - royalists - (Cristino Martos, Manuel Becerra, Nicolás M. Rivero), Republicans (José M. Orense, Emilio Castelar, Francesc Pi i Margall) and utopian Socialists (Sixto Cámara, Fernando Garrido). All have in common the defense of popular sovereignty - expressed in universal suffrage - and individual rights. On November 10, 1871, after a vote that casts a result of 192 votes, in favor and 38 against the courts declare unconstitutional the first international. The arrival to the Presidency of the Government of the general Malcampo in October this year favors political forces in power radicalicen their positions against this organization.

The Minister of the Interior, Francisco Candau, proposes to dissolve the international I as attempted to the security of the State, for what counts with the support of conservatives and moderates. Canovas de Castillo justified his stance in defense of private property, the maintenance of social order and individual rights. This proposal has also with the support of the Carlists and, on its behalf, as well as manifest Cándido Nocedal, while to the radical Eugenio Montero Ríos says the issue is the responsibility of the courts of Justice. For his part, Pi i Margall and Salmeron intervened on behalf of the I International putting in question, from different points of view, the legitimacy of private property. At 12 in the night of February 11, 1873, the courts named as Prime Minister Estanislao Figueras. The Cabinet was composed of three Republican - Pi i Margall in governorate, Castelar in State and Nicolás Salmerón in justice - and five radical - Béranger in Marina, Fernández of Córdoba in war, Francisco Salmerón overseas, Becerra on promotion and José Echegaray in finance. In addition, radical Cristino Martos was elected President of the Congress. On June 11, 1873, Francesc Pi i Margall managed to form a Government after a long and complicated negotiation. The resignation of Figueras, gather the courts on June 1, opened a crisis in was it evident the division in the Federal Party. Day 8, Pi i Margall submitted a first list of Government which was rejected, forcing Figueras to continue in the Presidency. But this abandoned and fled to France the 10th, leaving behind of a situation of chaos in which spread rumors of a possible coup d ' état staged by the intransigent. A day later, Pi i Margall was able to form a Government made up of politicians from second row.

At the same meeting, Pi said that the aims of his Government were to save the Republic and order. Francesc Pi i Margall, contrary to force solutions, tried to politically disarm the rebels in Cartagena, where was proclaimed the canton, and on 17 July 1873 filed with courts, gathered in Madrid, a draft Constitution prepared abruptly by Castelar in 24 hours. It is composed of 117 articles divided into 17 titles. Article I States that the Spanish nation takes the form of a federal Republic, made up of the States of high Andalusia, Andalusia low, Aragon, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Castilla la Nueva, Castilla la Vieja, Catalonia, Cuba, Extremadura, Galicia, Murcia, Navarra, Puerto Rico, Valencia and regions Basque country. He made a presentation of individual rights, very similar to the Constitution of 1869, and introduces the power of relationship, exercised by the President. On July 18, 1873, Francesc Pi i Margall resigned in Madrid faced criticisms from many MPs, who blamed her the responsibility of cantonal movement due to its lack of firmness. Discussions on the new Constitution, presented by the Chair the previous day, failed to finish, but was perceived that their approval would be impossible given the federal field division. In 1876, Francesc Pi i Margall in Madrid, published his work the nationalities, which sought to demonstrate that the federal principle is superior to the fundamentals of the other forms of political organization and included as an appendix the constitutions of Germany, United States and Switzerland. The Republican coalition of March of 1893 broke a few months later, despite pressure from the bases of the three parties to maintain the union. Throughout 1894, Republican parties reaffirmed their positions. Progressives and centralists held meetings in April and may, respectively.

On June 21, 1894, Francesc Pi i Margall published in Madrid a manifiesto-programa in which synthesized their federal ideology and showed a greater concern for social issues. On November 29, 1901, he died in the capital of Spain at the age of 77. His death took place when the rapprochement between the Catalan federalists and regionalists was taking place. Author of nationalities and history of Spain in the 19th century.