Pope of the Catholic Church born in Senigaglia in 1792 and died in Rome in 1878. His real name was María Giovanni Mastai-Ferretti.
His father was the count Jerome Mastai-Ferretti, belonging to a noble family originally from Lombardy, and her mother, Catalina Sollazi, one of the best-known families in the country. He studied at the College of Volterra Toscana, directed by the Piarist fathers, where he dedicated himself to the study of human letters. In 1809 he left for Rome to study philosophy and theology, but he had to leave because of the political turbulence. He returned in 1814 and ended his studies. On 10 April he was ordained priest. Pius VII, with whom he kept some kinship, appointed him spiritual director of the asylum known as Tata Giovanni, in the Via Julia, who played with application to be appointed as auditor of the Apostolic Delegate of Chile, Juan Muzi mosenor. In 1823 he embarked to America, where, after traveling through Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia and Uruguay, returned to Rome and was appointed Canon of Santa María and the director of the hospital of San Michele. He was Archbishop of Spoleto, named cardinal in 1840 and elected Pope on the death of Gregory XVI, under some very critical circumstances, including the revolution of the Papal States, whose loss had to suffer. He had to struggle at times against the intrigues of the revolutionaries and others against the management of the Minister Cavour and other statesmen who strove to form the capital of a United Italy outside Rome, and whose King, Víctor Manuel. He promulgated a Constitution for the Papal States, but had to withdraw it for the serious disturbances that occurred in Rome. The Republic ruled by a triumvirate consisting of Mazzini, Armellini and Saffi was established in 1848. The Pope asked for help to France, Austria, Spain, and Naples, and was resettled his Government by French troops. Until the annexation of their States to the Kingdom occurred in 1870, his Government was a continuing struggle against the revolutionaries.
In 1858 Napoleón III and Cavour are interviewed, and agreed to war on undisputed how preliminary Austria for Italian unity. The Austrians were defeated at Magenta in 1859 and began the dissolution of the Papal State. In 1861 he took the title of King of Italia Víctor Manuel and moved its capital to Florence. In 1870 the King ordered the entry of their troops in Rome and the Pope was prisoner in the Vatican. The Piedmontese government abandoned the Concordat of 1841, abolished tithes, secularized education, suppressed monasteries and confiscated church property. Many countries broke relations with the Holy See. Nevertheless, Pius IX established a Concordat with several countries Central and South American, restored the ecclesiastical hierarchy in England and created several Episcopal headquarters in the United States.UU. He convened the Vatican Council in 1869, which was proclaimed the dogma of the Inmaculada Concepción the first, established L'Osservatore Romano, and promulgated the Encyclical Quanto conficiamur, Quanta cura, Syllabus errorum and Respicientes. It deployed much strength and energy during his pontificate to remove the heresies and false liberalism that tended to the destruction of faith and religion. It met four times to spin the universal episcopate. Proclaimed the Inmaculada Concepción, san José he glorified extending your party to the universal Church and beatified to 86 servants of God.