Biography of Plutarco (ca. 50-ca. 125)

Famous biographer and moralist Greek, born in Chaeronea (Boeotia) around the year 50 a.d. and died towards the 125. He belonged to a noble family of that city, which spent most of his life; for his work, the names of his father (Autobulo) and grandfather (Lamprias), as well as those of other family members and friends, are known as the consul l. Mestrio Floro, who took the name; Q Sosius Senecio, who dedicated their lives and other writings, and so many men of State and artists.

When I was just a child, he learned philosophy and mathematics with Ammonio or ammonium, platonic philosopher, at Delphi, and its premature capacity and profound knowledge gave him very prompt access to public offices; He toured the cities of Greece and Egypt; in the time of Domitian, he went to Rome, where he taught philosophy and enjoyed the friendship of Trajan and, later, Adriano. However, you have to take with care some data about their relationship with Trajan, because many of them are derived from the allocation to the spurious Plutarco Institutione principum; However, know that the Hispanic cared much to Greek, since among other charges gave the Government of Illyria.

Shortly after the death of Trajan, retreated to his land, where he spent the rest of his days in the middle of the estimate of their countrymen, who elevated him to the first dignities. It is known that, shortly after reaching age 40, got an appointment of priest at Delphi, since he retained until his death and that it served to revive the cult of Apollo. Therefore his last thirty years of life spent among Chaeronea and Delphi. Despite the fact that, for posterity, it is one of the principal authors of the ancient world, two contemporaries such as Tacitus and Pliny the younger made no mention of his work.

The so-called catalogue of Lamprias 227 works, of which 78 miscellaneous titles remain are awarded (some of which do not appear in the previous list) and 50 biographies. However, since medieval times, all minor material agavilló under the title of Moralia, in which there are rhetorical material (here and there become intertwined, as in his De garrulitate), religious (thus in De superstitione, where he argues his way of understanding the piety), philosophical (the famous of cohibenda anger), scholar (as in facie quae in orbe lunae apparet, that deals with the disposition of the ORB)literary (with very interesting reviews of the work of Menanderand Aristophanes , Herodotus), any consulting (namely his Consolatio ad uxorem, on the death of his daughter) and a good handful of dialogues (with his Quaestiones convivales, set of lectures held by different scholars).

Besides there is a series of spurious texts were pasted with the passing of the years, as the pueris rappresentazione, which had a huge influence in the Renaissance; the De fato, which is a precious document neoplatonic; the Consolatio ad Apollonium, a magnificent piece of the genre that was never written by Plutarch; the Vitae X oratorum, that reviews the life and the technique of the attic orators from antiphon to Dinarco; the Placita philosophorum, which contains a myriad of maxims of illustrious men; Finally, the music is a vital source of information about the music and, incidentally, on lyric poetry.

On the other hand, is his biographical corpus, known as lives of illustrious men, that brings together materials belonging to different categories, as their lives of the Roman emperors, of which are only known Galba and Marco Salvio Othon, and, above all, the block that deserves the title of lives exclusively parallel (Paralleloi bíoi, a transliteration of the title in original Greek); 23 biographies, are preserved, 19 of which are paired, facing that of a character in the Greek world to another in the Roman world. In all of them, Plutarch shows a moral purpose, since it aims to set an example of virtue to all its readers. Having a young audience in mind, this author put special care in the phase of formation of the biografiados characters, which drew according to a pattern that attempted to respect in all cases. In his work, Plutarch took data from different sources, both oral and written.

Forgotten during the middle ages, was the late middle ages and early Renaissance of the Midlands of the Trecento retrieve and disclose his work, thanks to the work of Byzantine scholars such as Maximus Planudes. Before that Plutarch was poured into French by Amyot (in 1559, lives; in 1572, the Moralia) and into English by North (the lives in 1579) and Holland (the Moralia in 1603), Juan Fernández de Heredia got out his translation to the Aragonese between 1379 and 1382, who attempted to get without success the great humanist Coluccio Salutati; Since this romanceamiento, another anonymous became Italian between 1395 and 1397.

By these same dates, several of the moral treaties, as the cohibenda anger, were poured into latin from Greek. For readers of the time, and of our day, Plutarch is a real mine of facts, that notice of extraordinary events, assassinations, famous battles and other many events of antiquity. The influence exerted by his stories is enormous, although sometimes appropriate intermediaries; in fact, only thus, thanks to the English version of North (which translated from the French of Amyot), Plutarch became the basic source of Shakespeare in Corilano, Marco Antonio and Cleopatra and Julio César.