Biography of Mariano Ignacio Prado (1826-1901)

Military and Peruvian politician, born in Huánuco December 18, 1826, and died in Paris on 5 May 1901. He/She came twice to the Presidency of the Republic; the first only in ephemeral way: 1865-1867; the second elections in 1876. Eight months after the outbreak of the war with Chile left the Peru in what was considered a shameful dereliction of duty.

Mariano Ignacio Prado was the founder of a family clan that would govern the Peru four times between the mid 19th century and mid-20th. He/She was born in the bosom of a family prominent in the region, but no fortune that transcend beyond it. The father was Mayor of Huanuco, dominating a region of agricultural economics articulated in the mining center of Pasco. His mother was of Spanish descent. The priest Agustín Rato, who was his tutor's childhood and adolescence, got transferred to Lima, the Colegio de San Carlos, so he/she extended studies of right, but the death of the elder brother forced him to return to Huanuco and assume the family business.

It failed to raise a fortune, but he/she had a natural son with María Avelina Gutiérrez: later famous and early Colonel Leoncio Prado, hero of the battle of Huamuchuco, after which they would be shot. In Huánuco the Prado family enjoyed the protection and support of the most important family Durand, and Mariano Ignacio served as foreman in a hacienda in this. In 1853, already with 27 years, Prado moved to Lima. Huanuco offered no future; Neither politician, by its isolation; or economic, for the prostration in which lay the mining of Pasco. In the capital of the Republic, Prado was involved in debates unleashed around the scandal of the consolidation of the domestic debt, so was deported to Chile. The revolution of Castile against Echenique brought him back and won in her military grades that is. in the time: between July and November, 1854, the victorious revolution exalted him from captain to Lieutenant Colonel.

Forming part of the ring castillista, in 1857 was elected Deputy by Huanuco the National Convention; a year later he/she was appointed Prefect of Arequipa. He/She served for a short time, because in 1859, he/she returned to the barracks for four years. In 1863 he/she was sent to Tacna as Prefect, and later returned to Arequipa again as Prefect. It was common at the time that the soldiers were not only the Presidents of the Republic, but also the prefects of the interior.

In 1864, already on the eve of the action that definitively leading it to high national politics, he/she married the Arequipa Lady Magdalena Ugarteche Gutiérrez de Cossío. So long surnames came him in vain, because this young lady, sixteen years younger than the groom, belonged to a wealthy family.

A marriage of fortune and an expectant military career needed to be crowned, however, by a major war action. The occasion was given the Vivanco-Pareja Treaty signed by the Government of Pezet with Spain in 1864, as a result of the Spanish occupation of the guano Islands. PRADO is climbed as leader of the national outrage that toured the country by what was seen as a humiliating agreement. In Arequipa it began the revolution against Pezet, which led him to the Government in 1865. The following year victory of May two in Callao already raised it to the status of national hero.

His first Government was brief, but the strong desire for reform against the demoralization in the public service. He/She wrote the so-called "Cabinet of talents", which included Manuel Pardo, José Gálvez, Toribio Pacheco, José Simeón Tejada and José María Químper, all members of a new generation of enthusiastic, enlightened and liberal ideas. However, or the liberalism of the reforms it was excessive, or the intrigues of their effective enemies, the fact is that a revolution (of Diez Canseco) ended with his Government at the beginning of 1867 and returned it to a country well-known for disgraced Peruvian politicians: Chile. He/She was there several years, engaged in the business of carbon and thickening a fortune that allowed him to perform the ritual and expensive trip to Europe that characterized members of the elite.

With the rise to the Presidency of the Republic of his friend Manuel Pardo, he/she returned to the Peru in 1873. He/She received the grade of general and approached the civil party. He/She was elected Deputy for Cañete in 1874 and then President of the Chamber of Deputies. In the elections of 1876 he/she beat Lizardo Montero, and came again to the Presidency, in which he/she would remain until 1880.

The crippling fiscal crisis prevented him from undertaking a broad government action. He/She had to face the opposition of the nitrate interests, the closure of the international credit debt moratorium and the devaluation of the national currency. The Parliament, dominated by the civilismo and divided toward the question of saltpeter, developed a work of opposition that also tied him hands. Produced in 1878 the first skirmishes of the saltpeter war, did not have enough power to prevent it, pressuring Bolivia to it peacefully resolved their differences with Chile, already channeling the question of the nitrate to solutions that esquivasen the conflict.

It was carried away by the speculative mood of civil pierolistas politicians and other shops, and the agricultural entrepreneurs and miners. The first, believing that the war would serve them to Excel against public opinion, as had happened with the own Prado in 1866; Second, because waiting that the devaluation of the national currency would allow them to very high earnings.

The war against Chile the hero of two may become a kind of national traitor. At the beginning he/she moved south to personally direct the conflict, but after the defeat of Angamos, decided to journey to Europe, the same day serving 53 years. The reason for this trip was to personally make weapons purchases in Europe, but the population, fuelled by rival warlords, understood it as a shameful flight. The President left the country during the war and after the destruction of the main thing of our Squadron.

On "the journey of meadow" is tejería then a perennial black legend: the general fled taking public money and the collected for armament; in the popular imagination that terrible theft would have been the origin of the family fortune of the Prado. Several historians who investigated the matter, denied, however, that the President has had appropriated money. He/She was the Minister of finance, José María Químper, and Treasurer Julio Pflücker Rico, who send funds through checks and bills of Exchange. Both were exculpados in investigations that were made after the war with regard to the use of the funds. With the money acquired two ships; one of them arrived to Peru, while the other was repossessed by creditors.

The Presidency was the general door, who was overthrown a few days by Nicolás de PIÉROLA. This, in a furious Decree of May 22, told Prado traitor to the fatherland and evicted their military grades and all their rights as citizens. In 1887 Prado returned to Peru; little is known of their chores in those years, already away by the force of public opinion and policy. In 1899 he/she returned to Paris, where he/she died on May 5, 1901. The following year his body arrived in Callao and was transferred to the mausoleum of the family of his son-in-law, Juan Manuel Peña coasts. When his son Manuel was the Presidency of the Republic, in 1944, he/she tried to the coffin of his father enter the Pantheon of national heroes, which was rejected by the army.