Biography of Manuel Prado y Ugarteche (1889-1967)

Politician Peruvian, born in Lima in 1889 and died in 1967, it occupied the Presidency of the Republic of Peru on two occasions (1939-45 and 1956-62).


Member of one of the most powerful families in the country, was the son of the President Mariano Ignacio Prado, who ruled in the 19th century, and who also did it in two occasions, which gave opportunity to participate since I was very young in the political life of the country.He took part in the assault on the Presidential Palace as companion to Colonel Benavides (4 February 1914) when it gave the President Billinghursta coup d'etat. He/She was banished by Leguía to Europe, when the fissures among the political representatives of the strong aristocratic oligarchy that controlled the power became insurmountable due to the populist and personalist project of the President. Upon his return he/she held various public offices until it was nominated for the Presidency of the Republic during the period from 1939-45. He/She was a candidate without party, but officially supported; at a time in which the country came out of a dark dictatorship, both the apristas and the Communists saw the candidacy of the Prado Aristocrat with good eyes. The world then entered the upheavals of the second world war.

Since its emergence as national States, Peru and Ecuador had a series of border clashes that, in 1941, led to an armed conflict, ended with a Peruvian incursion into Ecuadorian territory. The subsequent negotiations resulted in the signing of a peace treaty known as the Rio Protocol of Janeiro of 1942, followed by the clarification or adjudication of days Braz de Aguiar of 1945. Meadow not only did war to Ecuador, but it also declared it to Japan, before other South American Nations committed themselves in the war. This Declaration of war meant a black chapter in local history, when popular bands were devoted to the looting of businesses of Japanese citizens living in Peru or descendants of early immigrants arrived in the country at the end of the 19th century; Moreover, many Japanese or descendants of them were taken prisoner and sent to concentration camps in the us. UU.

The Prado Government period was marked by the wars. The national economy with the dictatorship of Benavides was on the rise, with a growing agricultural production cycle; mining and mining stable. However, rapid population growth forced the country to grow with it, which under the circumstances was impossible. However, it should be noted that during those years opened a cycle of manufacturing growth, encouraged by the "import substitution". The tensions, which would lead to the emergence of an inflationary process, would be revealed in the next period, with the prestigious lawyer José Luis Bustamante y Rivero, in the presidential chair.

Completed its mandate, Prado left politics and dedicated himself to business and lived for long time in Paris where, because of its support for De Gaulle during the war, had sympathy and support.

PRADO returned to the Presidency in 1956. His Government continued in General with the tone of the "ochenio" of his predecessor Manuel Odría, although it remained less effective support to manufacturing that characterized his first Government. The introduction of a steel plant in the port of Chimbote, with which the country sought to emulate the efforts of industrialization of Nations such as Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, was one of the most important works. Chimbote was also already the most important fishing port and its explosive growth was one of the most salient of the end of the Decade social phenomena.

The demand for reforming the agricultural sector grew as the social mobilizations. PRADO did not, however, propose a land reform law, limited to the creation of an Institute of land reform and colonization (IRAC), with "an immediate end to study, propose, and if possible, implement the measures required to increase the area cultivated colonizing the forest, spreading the small and medium-sized property and preferentially seeking the establishment of family farms"whose studies were taken up by the following Governments. In 1962, Prado issued a set of proposals seeking general points for future reform; its basic objective was to solve the defects in the agrarian structure, reducing the excessive concentration, avoiding the excessive parcelling out of private ownership of land and eliminating unsatisfactory forms of their tendency. But nothing truly would apply as for the reform of the agricultural sector until 1969; on the contrary, peasant struggles for land were rather the brand of the time, as they recreate the literary works of Manuel Scorza.

Anchor meadow with the interests of the oligarchy did not prevent a paternalistic and developmental discourse would deploy from the Executive. The idea of "vigorously promote our economic development and our material process" meant an improvement in the living conditions of the majority population, "because no popular system can operate nor say when the less favoured by Fortune classes fail to meet their basic needs". PRADO said that: "workers and employees of the cities and fields are not only labour or mechanical elements", they had to "give them their true role as important factor in production".

In 1959 the curl pattern engineer wrote the Peru Via Plan, proposed by the regional industrial development, in an attempt to of to the massive immigration to the city of Lima, converted into a vast city of impoverished residents who took to the hills and the beaches adjacent to the Valley of the Rimac. In 1960 it engaged itself in United States Mission of the Arthur D. Littler Inc., which developed a programme of Industrial development and Regional for Peru, divided into three parts: the first devoted to a program of industrial development, the second was the plan Via Peru and the third was devoted to industrial opportunities in the country. All revealed the importance which had the development of the industry in a changing market by population and urban growth.

A change in the political economy, it was necessary to so Prado appointed journalist and liberal politician Pedro Beltrán to occupy the finance portfolio. The new Cabinet pledged from the outset to achieve short-term monetary stability, the budget balance and recovery of currency. On February 18, 1960 was signed the Treaty of Montevideo, whereby the Contracting Parties established a free trade zone and instituted at the same time the Latin American free trade association.

In oil and iron foreign participation in Peru was 100%, in the 88% copper, zinc 67%, in lead and Silver 50%, fishing 30% and 23%. In 1968, Anderson Clayton company controls 83% of cotton exports. That same year twelve major American corporations produce or are crucial in the production of 54% of the ten leading Peruvian exports. 33% of the industrial production is controlled by 41 foreign companies. Agromineras companies take advantage of the facilities provided by the State to perform a primary processing of their production; the exemplary case is that of fishing, where the production of fish meal almost finished with anchovy, predation which then continued with other marine species. In reality, the economic policy set by Odria, who paved the way for that concentration of ownership in foreign hands, was not reviewed by his successors. The Prado Government issued the law on Industrial development in 1959, which largely favored which foreign firms procesasen their production.

Until the mid-1970s, the city of Lima grew up with aspirations of cosmopolitan city. From this date, the growth stopped abruptly; Moreover, some buildings were left half-finished, witnesses of that sudden stop. Since that time, Lima urbanism was the poor masses that are abigarraban in extensive human settlements that were called "neighborhoods" to "peoples" young. The streets of Tacna and Abancay remained as a sign of an architecture that aspired to great city in the previous decade, giving way to a daily invasion and a deterioration of the abandonment. Two million people moved to four. The city got stuck on its traffic ways and began outpatient trade. Then constructions were transferred to Miraflores, which, although it was transformed slowly into a small cosmopolitan city, did not have his romantic air of Spa. At the end of 1950s appeared television in Lima. The city is transformed into their customs, the boys 'play' of the Waikiki Club, the luau to faux Hawaii, pop music and the miniskirt, flares. The news of the rebellion and putting into question all fed the challenging behaviors of youth. The cold war and the real possibility of a revolution in Latin America put in tension to the police investigators and those who believed in acting to change the order of things.

All these changes made the aristocrat ruling to remain as a figure of the past. In January 1959 the Cuban revolution occurred, but President Prado had other things to think about. His second term began almost with their second wedding, because during his stay in Paris he/she had intercourse with a Peruvian since then accompanied him and was with him for the second time Palace. In first marriages he/she had married a wealthy heiress, Clorinda Malaga, so had to make long and costly efforts to canonically annulled the marriage, which led him to bring into play all their influences in the Vatican at the end of the papacy of Pius XII.