Biography of José Antonio Primo de Rivera (1903-1936)

José Antonio Primo de Rivera.

Lawyer and Spanish, founder of Falange Española, politician born in 1903 and died was executed on November 20, 1936. He/She was son of Miguel Primo de Rivera.

He graduated in law in 1922 and began his political career as a member of the National Patriotic Union, which arose, unsuccessfully, as a candidate for the Constituent Cortes of the Republic, in 1931, with the purpose of defending the much-maligned memory of his father and of his work.

After its failure, he/she founded "Falange Española", fascist movement whose doctrine outlined in the Constitutional Act of the same, held on October 29, 1933 in Madrid's Teatro de la Comedia. In the month of November of that same year, gets Act of independent Deputy for Cadiz. At the time, organized Spanish Falange with the newspaper F.E. main exponent of his ideas together with the Spanish University Union (SEU). In February 1934, Falange Española merged with boards of trade unionist national offensive (Jonah), directed by Onésimo Redondo in Valladolid, and by Ramiro Ledesma Ramos in Madrid. From this moment on, revolutionary consciousness was reaffirmed and direct action of the new organization. The address was established in a triumvirate consisting of José Antonio, Ramiro Ledesma and Julio Ruiz de Alda. It was decided to adopt the emblem of the yoke and arrows, which were included in the coat of arms of the Catholic monarchs, and the flag, red and black.

In the first National Congress of Spanish Falange de las JONS, held in October, 1934, José Antonio was appointed national boss, drafted its programmatic doctrine in the known, "twenty-seven points" and established the use of the blue shirt as distinctive.

Hymn of Spanish Falange and the JONS.

[José Antonio Primo de Rivera was one of the authors of the letter in the face of the Sun which was sung in public for the first time on February 2, 1936, at the rally held at the Madrid European cinema].

After the elections of February 1936, in which did not obtain any seat, the Republican Government declared illegal Spanish Falange de las JONS, responsible for the existing disorder, and José Antonio was imprisoned in Madrid.

Started the Civil War, moved you to the detention of Alicante, where, accused as INSPIRER of the national uprising, was it processed together to his brother Miguel and wife, considered to be also cooperators. Tried by a people's Court, José Antonio was sentenced to death, and executed on November 20, 1936.

His political ideas man, bearer of eternal values was based on two principles, on the one hand the homeland, understood as a destination in the universal drive, and on the other. It was against the parliamentary government and political parties. The main mission of Falange Española was to achieve the national revolution to establish a State in the service of the fatherland. All Spaniards should participate in it through its function family, municipal or Union, but never through the parties. Their exalted patriotism made him consider how depository youth of new values, essential for the renewal of Spain, hence one of its maximum and first concerns was the recruitment and training of the youth.

After his death, the figure of José Antonio survived for many years as the leading martyr of the Spanish Civil War.


AGUINAGA. E and PAYNE, S. José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Barcelona, Ediciones B, 2003.

GIL PECHARROMÁN, J. José Antonio Primo de Rivera. Portrait of a visionary, issues of today, 2003.