Poet, playwright and storyteller Russian, born in Moscow in 1799 and died in Petersburgo in 1837. Considered by good part of criticism as the creator of the modern Russian literature, his life and work embody, par excellence, the paradigm of the romantic writer.
Belonging to a House of the old nobility, he grew up in a family environment prone to dealing with the muses. His father and his uncle were poets, and by the House of young Pushkin circulated figures of Russian, and Karamzin , Zhukovskyletters. Parenting that waived you your aya, truffled tales and popular legends, fed his bookish imagination.
He studied at the Lycée de Tsárskoie Seló, where he became seasoned in their first poetic conflicts. After leaving the Institute, he obtained a job at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, while participating in the literary scene of Moscow, which held his first big success in the field of poetry, managed by the poem Ruslan and Lyudmila.
Because of the publication of certain works of "revolutionary" character, he was confined in Ekaterinoslav, where left to undertake some journeys by different peoples from their homeland. Its route was stopped in Odessa, where, having obtained a destination for his civil service position, lived his first turbulent love affairs.
In 1823 he confessed in a letter his atheism; confiscated correspondence, he was dismissed from his post bureaucratic and confined to the narrow limits of the hacienda that his family owned in Mijailovskoye (Pskov). And although this shift away from the more agitated nuclei prevented him from participating in the Decembrist revolt of 1825, lived, in Exchange, a very fertile period for their literary production.
Claimed to Moscow, in 1826, by the new Tsar Nicolás I, lost much of the predicament that he enjoyed among Revolutionary Youth, who saw in this approach to the Court an involution in his progressive ideas. However, "forgiveness" from the Tsar not supposed to both a new opportunity of "repentance" for Pushkin, as a subtle trick to get it better controlled. Be that as it may, the fact is that the poet seemed to be "sitting head" and calmed their momenta rebel, as evidenced by the fact that, in 1830, was agreed to solemn marriage with the beautiful Natalia Goncharova. Later settled in Petersburgo, where he enjoyed great prestige and - although he sought to keep his liberal ideas - not objected openly to power. In 1833 he was elected member of the Russian Academy.
But their married life was a string of continuous troubles, almost all of them promoted by the dissolute conduct exhibiting his admired wife openly. On January 27, 1837, Pushkin was impelled to challenge the French baron Georges D' Anthès, of whom forked tongues petersburguesas murmured that he argued carnal and adulterous trade with the generous Natalia in duel to the death. Two days late, as a result of injuries sustained in the course of the challenge, Pushkin was able to personally check if its rational and visceral atheism was justified or not.
Linked in his youth to Arzamas - jocular poetic society, created by Zhukovsky, Batiushkov and Piotr Andreyevich Viazmenski-, first poems that he composed, despite being clearly imitative of the work of the above-named authors, they were already in the young Puhskin a natural talent for poetry, especially with regard to the scrupulous formal perfection of his works.
The mentioned poem which earned him his first recognition, Ruslan and Lyudmila (1820), also reveals an early influence of the French models, clarified here in the irony of volteriano bias, the careful selection of the lexicon and the brilliant metaphorical creation. Soon after, in the poems written in Kishiniev - the prisoner of the Caucasus (1820-1821), the fountain of Bakchisaray (1822) and the brothers highwaymen (1822) - Pushkin also shows the influence of lord Byron. But the highest point reaching his poetry comes from the hand of a novel in verse, Eugenio Oneguín, composed between 1823 and 1831. It is a narrative poem structured in eight cantos, which unfolds gradually from the vibrant Vitalism of the first up to the dramatic tension that erupted in the eighth. It is observed here influences the Tristram Shandy, Sterne, and - again - Don Juan Byron.
Pushkin also wrote in verse some stories erotico-burlescos, as the count Nulin (1825) and the little house in Kolomna (1830), and other narrative poems - the Gypsies (1824), Poltava (1828) and the rider of bronze (1833). In addition, cultivated wisely the poetic fable, which left two large samples in the Tsar Saltan and the fable of the Golden Cockerel.
In 1828, Pushkin left unfinished historical novel the moor of Pedro the great, which chronicled the life of an ancient ancestor yours, the Ethiopian Hannibal. But from 1830, devoted to writing prose, published his famous tales of Belkin (1830) - set of five short stories - and their two great novels: the Queen of Spades (1834) and the daughter of the captain (1836). It also undertook the writing of a novel that did not see completed, Dubrovski. In addition, in prose, he published a literary essay (history of the revolt of Pugachev, 1834) and a book of travel (travel to Arzrum, 1836), and left an extensive and illuminator correspondence.
Versatile pen of Pushkin is the first romantic tragedy of Russian literature, Borís Godunov (1825), written in verse and prose. Along with it, the Moscow-based Bard added Talia domains with four short dramas in verse: Mozart and Salieri, the feast during the plague, the miserly Knight and the stone guest. In addition, the Rusalka drama left unfinished.