Biography of Faraón de Egipto Ramsés o Rameses II (1289-1224 a.C.)

(Ra-ms-s stp.n Wsr-Maat-Ra-Ra) Third King of the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty, son and successor of Sethi I, who had associated it to the throne, and his wife Tuya2. Rameses II, described as "Sun of all countries", "Perfect image of Re" and "Glorious sun of Egypt", was without a doubt one of the most important Egyptian pharaohs, educated in accordance with their rank and under the ideal of the greatness of the two lands. It was excellent Hunter (hit a fabulous number of Lions) and above all a great Builder, as well as an excellent military and politician. Did not hesitate to found cities nationwide that carried his name, the most famous being that of Pi-Rameses, located in a strategic place (today Tell ed - gave) and where you installed your residence. His foreign policy focused it on the maintenance of Egyptian hegemony, both in Nubia, where he directed several military campaigns (Beit el-Ouali), as on the border of the delta, threatened by the first incursions of foreign peoples - the sharden - precursors of the peoples of the sea, and that it could contain, then incorporating them into his army. This was followed by a first campaign by Syria that led him to Canaan, tyre and Byblos. From here he went to the country of Amurru, surprising her Prince Benteshina , sometimes allied to the Hittites and other Egyptians, trying to profit from his supposed neutrality. The following year, Rameses II reached Kadesh, near the Orontes River, place where he faced Hittite troops led by their King Muwattallis, in a famous battle of undecided end (in fact, Rameses II could not take the city), whose memory has come down to us in the famous poem of Pentaur, which made recording the Egyptian King in different places for its disclosure. The battle was followed other sporadic fighting in Ashkelon, Kerpet, Merem, Sherem, Deper and Tunit, until an egipcio-hitita Treaty, signed by Rameses II and Khattusilis III in the year 1268 BC put an end to the hostilities, and which we know from a Hittite version (written, however, in cuneiform Akkadian), found in Boghaz-koy, and Egyptian copies (Karnak and Ramesseum). Several years after the Treaty was strengthened with Rameses II's marriage to a Hittite Princess, daughter of Khattusilis III, called Naptera and that it took the Egyptian name of Maathorneferure (wake of marriage), then completed with a second Hittite Princess who became the Royal Harem. It also worried about protecting the Frontier West, bordering Libya, to stop the raids of Meshuesh and Libu, by lifting several fortresses between Rakothis and the current el-Alamein. Let the religious affairs in the hands of the high priest Nebunenef, person of confidence - who ensured a prudent balance of cults - and the politicians in Paser, vizier of the high Egypt. Rameses II had no less than eight official wives: Nefertari, the most beloved and buried in the Valley of the Queens, Iset-neferet, Bint-Anath, Meryt-amon III, Nebettauy, HenutmireMaathorneferure - the Hittite, and another second Hittite name unknown, as well as a large harem father of more than a hundred children did. His long reign (67 years he ruled and died at 92) allowed him to hold thirteen Parties Sed (the number fourteen, despite being announced, not could be carried out) and undertake numerous works of construction which, as it has revealed the Egyptology, carried out by the appropriation of ancient works, completion of others already under way and the start of new projects. There is the Temple of Abydos, the Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, pylon and the courtyard of Luxor and his funerary temple (Ramesseum), without forgetting the raised buildings in Memphis, Tanis, Pi-Rameses and the two magnificent rock temples of Abu Simbel (one dedicated to Pharaoh himself, which is autodivinizó, and the other his wife Nefertari) and which had been moved from its original place in 1964 and 1968 because of the Aswan Dam and waters of Lake Nasser. Also, King we have received, as well as an abundant documentation, several of his statues, being perhaps the most interesting the preserved in the Museum of Turin (1.94 m high), which represents him smiling and dressed with (khepresh) Blue Crown and sceptre heka. In Akhmim, about 140 km from Luxor is located in 1981 and 1991 the fragments of two colossi of Rameses II (one of 8 m high) covered with hieroglyphics, as well as another that belonged to his daughter and wife Meryt-amon. All of them had formed part of the monumental Temple of Akhmim, whose ruins are today covered by the current of this enclave. The Colossus (10,30 m of height) that of Rameses II lies in a Palm Grove of Memphis and is one of the 11 giants that had been intended for the Temple of Ptah of such a place is also interesting. The mortal remains of Rameses II, called in his ascension to the throne Usermaatre Setepenre, were first deposited in the Tomb that was done in the Valley of the Kings (not yet excavated in their entirety) and then in that of his father, where he looted and from there moved to "cache" Deir el-Bahari. His Mummy, universally famous, is located in the Cairo museum. He also ordered to have a monumental Tomb - cataloged with the number 5 - in the Valley of the Kings with more than 60 cameras for their numerous children, explored in 1995 by Kent Weeks. Some Egyptologists think that Rameses II, who employed the Hebrews for the construction of their city of Pi-Rameses was the Pharaoh of the exodus, MosesTracker, even though the presence of his Mummy indicates that he may not have died in the Red Sea (although the Bible does not say clearly that the Pharaoh died). Nor has come no registration or Egyptian text that allude to such an event. Many characters highlighted during the reign of Rameses II, between them the viziers Paser, Kay, Rahotep, the viceroy Setau, priests Nebunenef, Khaemuaset, Bakenkhonsu I) and the General Rameses-Nakht and Uriya. At the death of Rameses II the throne became his tenth third son, called Merenptah.