Biography of José. Duque de Zaragoza Rebolledo Palafox y Melzi (1776-1847)

Spanish General, born in Zaragoza on October 28, 1775 and died in Madrid on February 15, 1847.

He entered the body of Guards Corps on July 18, 1792. He/She participated in the campaign of the Roussillon against the French Republic, and became second lieutenant (i.e. brigadier), in mid-1807. He/She was captain general of Aragon, imposed by the popular movement at the beginning of the war of independence, since it first refused, but later had to admit.

During his command, he/she was the author of several proclamations and manifestos that were published in the press of the time. Thus, threw the Aragonese proclaims, the 27 of may 1808 (published in the collection of interesting papers, book 2), which followed the Aragonese also entitled, on 29 May following, which stipulated the enlistment. He/She was the author, also a new side, May 30, and a manifesto, on May 31 (published in the collection of interesting papers, book 3; and in the mercantile Journal of Cadiz, of June 30, 1808).

It amounted to quarterback the 6 June 1808, command that directed, then the first and second sites of Zaragoza. It launched another proclamation of June 17, 1808 (also published in the collection of interesting papers), and one side on day 18, which organized the defense of Zaragoza, published in the Gazeta de Zaragoza (No. 55, June 14, 1808). On the other hand, answered the same June 18 general Lefebvre, who had bullied him to not to disturb the peace (published in the Gazeta, no. 55, June 20, 1808). Your "response that the excmo. Mr. captain general of the Kingdom of Aragon [...] gave to his profession, that dated 4 August addressed to it by the Council of Castile"(Zaragoza, August 10, 1808), written at the instigation of Rozas Calvo, was published several publications: in the Gaceta de Zaragoza on the same day, in the extraordinary Gazeta in Zaragoza also on the same day, in the ministerial Gazette of Seville of September 31, 1808 (No. 31), and in the mercantile Journal of Cadiz on 8 April 1812 (No. 99).

On August 9 he/she addressed a letter to the generals and boards of Valencia, Catalonia, Asturias, Galicia, Andalusia, Castilla and Extremadura - the same to all of them - which, apart from express its satisfaction because the enemies have evacuated Madrid and give news on the website of Zaragoza, expressed interest in proposing the cities of Teruel, Guadalajara or basin as the headquarters of the Board of Deputiesi.e., what would be the Central Board. A second letter, Aug. 13, and the same boards on the lifting of the site of Zaragoza, was about the meeting of representatives of all the provinces of Spain, which at that time required that they take place in the cities such or in Toledo, for September 1. Both letters were published in the extraordinary Gazeta in Zaragoza (No. 8; 17 August 1808).

The manifest two months has (Zaragoza, August 13, 1808), was translated into German by Friedrich Schlegel in the Sammlung der Aktenstucken über die spanische Thronveranderung (Vienna, 1808). The office to the Board of Valencia, which communicated the lifting of the site of Zaragoza (Zaragoza, August 14, 1808) French, was published in la Gaceta ministerial in Seville, where you copied the mercantile Journal of Cadiz (No. 237; on August 31, 1808); and the manifest to the city of Tudela, on 22 August (reply to the letter of congratulations and appreciation day 20 sent him the city of Tudela), was published in the extraordinary Gazeta in Zaragoza (No. 9; 22 August 1808), in the supplement to the Gazette of Madrid of August 26, 1808, and the journal of Madrid on 22 and 23 October 1808. 16 August was dated the decree that created the rewards to the courage and patriotism, published in le Gazeta in Zaragoza (No. 69, August 16, 1808).

It addressed two letters, August 21, 1808, Gregorio de la Cuesta and Arias Mon, explaining the situation created after the lifting of the site (both published in the extraordinary Gazeta in Zaragoza, 24 August 1808). He/She wrote a new letter to Arias Mon (Zaragoza, 26 August 1808), sent with the Lieutenant Colonel Manuel de Ena, which indicates that at the time went out to court two members of the Kingdom (published in the Gazeta in Zaragoza, in no. 72; 27 August 1808).

September 14, 1808 created Court of public safety, which named its first three holders: Rafael José Amandi, José Ruiz Celada and Diego María Vadillos (appointments published in the Gazeta in Zaragoza, in the No. 78; September 17, 1808). By the manifest to the inhabitants of Zaragoza (Zaragoza, September 20, 1808; published in no. 86 of the Gazeta de Zaragoza, 15 October 1808), granted all the defenders of the city privilege can not be ever convicted infamatoria penalty, except in cases of Lese majeste, divine or human. They are famous letter "to benefit locals who contributed generous to succor the needs of his troops with money, clothes, and other effects" (Zaragoza, September 30, 1808; published in the mercantile Journal of Cadiz, at no. 290 of October 24, 1808); and his proclamation "to the soldiers by the action of Nardués" (Zaragoza, October 26, 1808; also published in the mercantile Journal of Cadiz, on the No. 325 of November 28, 1808).

He was promoted to lieutenant general November 2, 1808; from this period is his proclamation "Brave soldiers of my army of reserve" (Zaragoza, November 27, 1808), which the same ministerial Gazette of Seville inserted in their number 62 (December 30, 1808). His letter to Colonel fray Teobaldo Rodríguez (Zaragoza, on January 4, 1809), was published in the mercantile Journal of Cadiz (No. 35, February 4, 1809), where said to be "besieged, but not surrender".

He was appointed captain general on March 9, 1809. When he/she finished the second site, was ill, so that, after surrender, was taken to France, always with two sentries in sight. It was treated with enough contempt when he/she refused to swear to José I, and ended up imprisoned at Vicennes. The news of the Kingdom (Cádiz, 1809), informing that the French were ripped out, by coercion and as a ruse of war, a communication for the Governor of Mequinenza to surrender the plaza, but he/she refused. The prestige of Palafox suffered a harsh blow to publish the letter of Luis de Villava news about the second site of Zaragoza (Madrid, 1810): Palafox was presented as ignorant, arrogant, unfair and author of tremendous unreasonable from the point of view military; "his memory - concludes - will be always odious."

Released in 1814, it was Valencey to say hello to Fernando VII, with whom he/she was a whole week, source of thousand subsequent comments about the possible influence that would have exercised over the monarch. Returned to Spain, the provincial of Aragon addressed a letter, to which Palafox said (written in Reus, on April 2, 1814); both texts were published by the Madrid bee, in the No. 78 on April 9, 1814.

He was captain general of Aragon and commanded the army of observation of the Center until 1816. In his proclamation Nobles Zaragoza (Zaragoza, 30 July 1814) claimed to know their dissatisfaction, even though this would dissipate with the confidence that the King for all Aragon had given him (general Censor, 3rd time, released on August 18, 1814). On 14 December 1814 Goya finished their portrait painted from memory. He/She was published, shortly thereafter, the inaugural speech of January 2, 1815 declaim in the Real audience of Aragon in Zaragoza. Upon dissolution of the Revolutionary Army, he/she published the Aragonese proclamations and soldiers, both at the headquarters of Calatayud, January 31, 1816; passed, then the Board of fortification and camera Guerra, in the latter with nato maid character.

He held several honorary positions, such as President of the San Fernando and San Hermenegildo assemblies, whose large crosses possessed since 1815. It formed part of the Ateneo since May 14, 1820; It was also one of the founders of the National Association of insurance against fire, called San Fernando (Madrid, in October 1820). He/She was also captain general of Alabarderos between 1822 and 1823, and was awarded the prize from the King to his conduct on July 7. He/She was arrested, but released a few days later, by the subject of the Elizabethan, in 1834. Among others, he/she held the positions of director general of Invalides, inspector of provincial militia, and commanding general of provincial Royal Guard (between 1836 and 1838). He/She was commander of the Royal Guard outside of all weapons in 1841, director of disabled persons again in 1843, and of Alabarderos in 1846, and for the last time from Invalides in 1847, until his death. He/She had the Grand Cross of Carlos III.

He was married to Manuela Soler and Duran. He/She left an autobiography, published by José García Mercadal (in Madrid, 1966), and again, a better Edition, by Herminio Lafoz Rabaza, with the title of memories (Zaragoza; City Council, 1994).


National Historical Archives (State, leg. 15, no. 2).

Extraordinary Gazeta in Zaragoza (14 June 1808, and 8, 9, 10, 17 and 22 August 1808).

Garcia MERCADAL, José. Palafox, Duke of Saragossa (1775-1847). (Madrid, 1948).

CARRASCO and SAYZ, Adolfo: Icono-biografia of Spanish Generalship. (Madrid, 1901).

RIAÑO, Camilo: The Lieutenant General Don Antonio Nariño. (Bogotá, 1973).

AYMES, Jean-René. The deportation sous le Premier Empire. (Paris, 1983).

Municipal Archives of Huesca.

PALAU and DULCET, Antonio: Manual of Hispanic bookseller. 2nd ed. (Barcelona, 1948-1977).

Collection of interesting papers [confront cited numbers].

Journal of Madrid [confront cited numbers].

General censor [confront cited numbers].

Commercial newspaper of Cádiz [confront cited numbers].

Miscellany of trade, political and literature. ([No. 262, 17 of November of 1820] Madrid, 1819-1821).