Biography of Charles Renouvier (1815-1903)

French philosopher, born in Montpellier and died in Prades (Pyrénées-Orientales), in whose thought two phases can be distinguished: the neocriticista, inspired by Kant, and the personalistic, influenced by J. Lequier. What characterized his thinking and constitutes its originality is the attempt to combine the new enlightenment spirit with the kantismo. Renouvier was opposed to the philosophies of the restoration period: German idealism, positivism, and Saint-simonism. They discover the metaphysical absolutism and the historical determinism that constituted the theoretical support of the authoritarian political, contrary to the democraticos-libertarios ideals of the enlightenment. Hence the recourse to Kant against metaphysics. But it's a totally personal neokantismo which, in addition to abolishing the concept of the thing itself, reduces the phenomenal world to the category of "relationship". God is conceived not as an absolute monarch, but as INSPIRER of a moral order, which is the task of the men. Hence his polemic with Catholicism and other religions positive, on behalf of a philosophical religion. In the second phase of his thought, Renouvier, substituting Descartes and Leibniz, Kant emphasized the theme of freedom in a spiritual sense. This spiritualist twist, although far from all Pantheism and absolutism, used even agnostics, and Christian themes in opposition to naturalism and the positivist sociologism. At this time he also develops a theory explaining monadologica of nature, influenced by the Monadology of Leibniz, although with some differences with respect to this.

His main works are: Essais de critique Générale (four vols., 1854-64), Manuel de philosophie moderne (1842), Manuel de philosophie ancienne (1844), Esquisse d'une classification systématique des Systèmes philosophiques (two vols., 1885-86), nouvelle monadologie (1898), Les l'euphrate de la métaphysique pure (1901), Le personnalisme (1903).