Biography of Mariano Renovales y Rebollar (1774-1820)

Military Spanish, born in Arcentales (Vizcaya) in 1774, and died in Havana on May 22, 1820. He/She was the son of Francisco Javier Renovales and Manuela Rebollar, who emigrated from child to Buenos Aires. In 1793 he/she joined as a cadet in a regiment of cavalry to pursue the rebel Indians. He/She took part in the defense of Buenos Aires under the command of Liniers (1807).

As soon as he/she heard of the invasion of Spain by the French, he/she moved to the peninsula; He/She disembarked in Bilbao and of June 14, 1808 was presented at Zaragoza, in whose defense took part during the first siege as a sergeant major Commander of the gate of Sancho. He/She also participated in the second siege of the city, this time as a brigadier. It was taken prisoner, but to bring it to France escaped in the Roncal and organized the fight against the French in the Pyrenean valleys of Navarre and Huesca. After he/she published some pamphlets with the help of his Secretary fray Nicolás Uriz pen, and overcome by superior enemy, fled to Cádiz, where he/she organized an expedition to the Cantabrian coast.

At the end of the war of independence went to Madrid, but constitutional sympathies forced him into exile in France and later in England; However, he/she returned to Bilbao in time to take part in the conspiracy of Richart or triangle, so he/she was sentenced to death and had to go into exile, this time in London. There he/she came in contact with Latin American migrants, the result of which was a letter to Bolívar of the 13 of December of 1817, which offers its services to contribute to the independence of those provinces (although written in his own handwriting, the intellectual authorship of this letter is attributed to Gallardo). With the title of exposure of the General saplings. To the power Executive of the United Provinces of Venezuela, through its Deputy in London, the citizen Doctor Luis López Méndez, for the independence and freedom of those provinces, the Charter was published in the Correo del Orinoco, no. 2, July 4, 1818. But the project's American expedition of saplings, by its excessive talkativeness, reached the ears of the Spanish Ambassador in London, Duke of San Carlos. Between him and the Secretary Uriz carried saplings to betrayal, expressly agreed on 30 may 1818. On July 25 of that year, always with Uriz, he/she embarked saplings for New Orleans. There he/she published a manifesto in which tried to justify the reasons for his defection, and asked for money to the Spanish authorities in Cuba to go to Mexico. But, by proclaiming the Constitution in Spain, he/she decided to move to Cuba; It left New Orleans on 7 may 1820 and arrived in Havana on the 15th. There he/she was arrested on suspicion of assisting those who want to proclaim the Constitution on the island also, and died there, in the strong of the hut, officially of yellow fever or, according to some, poisoned. The attempt at vindication of saplings replied José Antonio Roca at the constitutional (August and September 1820).


FRANCO, José Luciano: Continental American policy of Spain in Cuba, La Habana, 1964.

CALVO, Lorenzo: Historical overview of the immortal defense of Zaragoza in its first site in the year of 1808. Deduction of official documents and relations of eyewitnesses, Madrid, 1839.