Biography of Erwin Rommel (1891-1944)

Erwin Rommel.

Military German, field marshal, born in Heidenheim on November 15, 1891 and died at Ulm on 14 October 1944, better known by the nickname "The Desert Fox".

Of humble origins, his father was an infant school teacher. Finishes the ordinary studies, in the summer of 1910 joined King Guillermo, 124 Regiment of infantry of Württemberg infantry regiment as a cadet. After a period of instruction entered into the Academy military of Gdansk and obtained the grade of second lieutenant of infantry in January 1912. The outbreak of the first world war interrupted his training period. During the war he fought as a Lieutenant in France, Romania and Italy. Being a battalion of Alpine hunters Lieutenant prisoner was taken by the Italians, but managed to escape and fell severely wounded in the Argonne. By their actions were awarded him with the Iron Cross first class in January 1915 and, at the end of September 1914, he was awarded the second class. After a hard workout at the Arlberg, where trained as a skier, at the end of 1915 he was sent with his battalion to the high Vosges. In the battle of Romania his battalion distinguished itself in Valarii, Odobesti and Deal Cosma. In the campaign of Italy he returned to demonstrate your military skills and was awarded the Medal of military merit, the highest German Award in attack on December 10, 1917 against the Monte Motajour. He was captain in October 1918.

After the Armistice, given its qualities, was retained him in the Reichswehr, where he was in command of a company of guns in Stuttgart. From 1929 he was Professor at the Academy of infantry of Dresden, which was exercising when Hitler came to power. He came into contact with the Führer and became one of his most effective collaborators, to the motorization of the German army, fundamental basis of his military strategy was mainly due. It amounted to Commander in 1933, Lieutenant in 1935, moment where he was appointed director of studies at the Academy of infantry of Potsdam. Two years later he became Colonel (1937) and directed the Wiener-Neustadt warfare school. He took part in the occupations of Austria and later in Poland, which took place on September 1, 1939, which meant the outbreak of the second world war. Appointed brigadier general, he became part of the General Headquarters of the Führer.

In 1940 he directed the advance on France through the Netherlands and Belgium; in March 1941, he was promoted to field marshal. He directed the Afrika Korps, unit armoured elite that, guided by Rommel in North Africa campaign, pushed the British to the border of Egypt. In a new offensive in 1942, Rommel took Tobruk and advanced to El Alamein (Egypt), where his troops were detained by British forces to 96 kilometres of Alexandria. In this period he began to be popular in the Arab world, where he was considered the "liberator" of the British Government. He was in Germany when the British launched an offensive and had to return to be defeated by these under the command of Montgomery in the second battle of El Alamein, in October 1942, after which it had to carry out the German withdrawal to Tunisia. In 1943-44 he directed the Group B of the army in Italy, and took command of the defense of the coast along the English channel, although he could not help the d-day landing in Normandy. Seriously wounded in a battle, he returned to Germany in July 1944.

The trial against those accused of plot against Hitler found his participation in it, given his growing opposition to the ideas of Hitler, especially about the idea of murder as political end. Instead of being accused received a personal message from Hitler that it cease to choose between suicide or be subject to court martial. He opted for suicide: on day 14 October 1944 was poisoned. Despite this, he was buried with military honors all. A laurel wreath was placed on his coffin and several speakers lifted up the "national hero". All the propaganda elements took advantage of the death of Rommel to exalt the regime. Their funeral ceremony was held on October 18 in the Mayor of Ulm, with a ceremony hosted by the direction of army personnel; in it took part on high heads of the three arms of the Wehrmacht, and Marshal Von Rundstedt delivered the funeral eulogy. On October 21, the URN that held the ashes of Marshal was buried at Herrlingen refuge.

Rommel was the author of Infanterie greiftan, fruit of his experiences during the first world war, memoir published in 1937. In 1953 published his diary the cards of Rommel, in which recounts their campaigns in Africa and points as a cause of the French defeat during the second world war the lack of motorized divisions.

Bibliography

KOCH, Lutz. The Marshal Rommel. (Barcelona: Juventud, 1954).