Biography of Juan Manuel de Rosas (1793-1877)

Military and Argentine politician, born in Buenos Aires on March 30, 1793 and died in Southampton (England) on March 14, 1877. He fought against the British during the second invasion in 1807.

After the capitulation of Whitelocke, roses left the regiment to which had been attached and went with his father to stay Rincón de López. In 1813 he married Encarnación de Ezcurra and Arguibel. He left the property from their parents and teamed up with Luis Dorrego and Juan Nepomuceno Terrero in the business of breeding and export of cattle to Cuba and Brazil. He founded the estancia Los Cerrillos, on the Salado River, where he successfully continued its task of breeder cattle on a large scale. At the request of the Supreme Director Pueyrredón, in 1818 roses formed part of the Commission to inform the Board on whether to abandon Buenos Aires fearing an invasion of the Royalist Army. In 1819 the Government elevated the project of organization of a society of farmers and landowners. In 1820 he did uncover skills caudillo and organize a personal army of 400 "colorados", which went to Buenos Aires to defend against the revolt of Colonel Pagola to Balcarce and the Cabildo with his pawns. The red dress of his men remembered the uniform of the same color worn by the regiment which contained the English invasion of 1807. With the rank of Commander, he joined the army of Buenos Aires under the command of general Martín Rodríguez. After achieving its purpose of evicting supporters of Pagola in the city, he retired from military life in 1821 and returned to their work of rancher. It immediately undertook a campaign against Indians which ravaged their stays along with his "colorados". In July 1827, Vicente López, Interim Governor of Buenos Aires, appointed him Commander of the militia of the province and entrusted the conclusion of peace with the Indians. Openly opposed the new unitary Government formed by Lavalle after the federal leader Dorrego overthrow this December 1, 1828. The death of this last shot by the unitary caused roses to enter in alliance with Vicente López against Lavalle. On April 26, 1829, the Feds defeated the unit in Puente de Márquez and proceeded to besiege Buenos Aires, circumstance that Lavalle forced to negotiate with roses. At the Convention held between both heads on June 24, 1829, both agreed to recognize the character that winner resulted in the election of December 1829. Roses triumphed and was elected Plenipotentiary Governor of Buenos Aires on December 8. Soon after, he obtained the support of the provinces of the littoral, Santa Fe and between Ríos, the same which gave rise to the federal Pact that formed the Confederación Argentina along with Buenos Aires and subsequently flows.

The Alliance with the warlords López and Quiroga allowed roses defeat the unit which had concentrated its strength in the interior provinces. In 1832, the Chamber of representatives returned to entrust to the office of Governor and captain general of Buenos Aires, but given the extraordinary powers that had requested. This circumstance led him to reject election and to return to his original plan of start the campaign in the desert region of Río Negro with his army. In 1834, as a reward for this military campaign, he received from the Government in gift the Choele-Choel island. However, the failure of the Governors for the stability of the Confederation decided to roses in 1834 to return to politics backed by the Group Sociedad Popular Restauradora, created two years earlier by his wife Encarnación Ezcurra. This group was triggered by a situation of violence and terror against the unit and the Federal doctrinaire, who opposed the granting of extraordinary powers demanded by roses. When the last opponent for the arrival to power of roses, the caudillo Juan Facundo Quiroga, was killed in Barranca Yaco, the resignation of the Governor Manuel Maza left cleared the way to roses assumed power.

March 7, 1835, the Buenos Aires representatives agreed to give roses Governor for five years with "the sum of public power", without further restrictions to preserve, defend and protect the cause of Federation and the Catholic religion. This concession meant the rupture of the Republican tradition of the division of powers into Executive, legislative and judicial, which were concentrated from then on roses, who established as a form of Government tyranny. The first step taken was to convene a referendum on 26-28 March, which confirmed its extraordinary powers. Rose took charge of the Government solemnly April 13, 1835. His first act was to dismiss massively the authorities regarded as not related to the regime. On 22 may he arranged that all official notices should be headed with the slogan "Viva la Federation". His influence was extended to all provinces imposing submissive governors who responded to its policy, in such a way that only he was outside his domain the Banda Oriental, refuge of the unitary émigrés.

In December 1835 he sanctioned a law of customs that excessively elevated tariffs on European imports to protect local agriculture and the manufacturing. The Buenos Aires opposition Rosas focused in the "Literary Salon", whose head was Marcos Sastre, and the "Association of Mayo" directed by Esteban Echeverría. In both societies gathered young intellectuals French, among which were Juan María Gutiérrez, Juan B. Alberdi, José marbleand Miguel Cané . Other antirrosistas personalities were Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Bartolomé Mitre, Juan Cruz Varela and Andrés Lamas. But the actions of these opponents were isolated and roses could control them easily.

More complicated was the external front. Rosas was involved in its first international conflict when in 1836, in the Banda Oriental, broke out the strife between warlords Fructuoso Rivera, unitary, and Manuel Oribe, federal. Argentines unit supported the first, while roses are shifted by the latter. Oribe was defeated in the battle of El Palmar on June 15, 1838, and after the siege to Montevideo, was forced to resign on October 24 and to take refuge in Buenos Aires. Another international conflict was that the Peru–Bolivian Confederation, which declared war on Bolivia on March 19, 1837. This war, despite its brevity, meant important costs for the public Treasury. However, the external events that influenced more on the internal situation were French in 1838 and 1845-Anglo-French locks. As a consequence of a decree of Roses which required the fulfilment of military service to foreigners residing in Buenos Aires for more than two years, the French ships in gesture of support for their colony proceeded to blockade of the port of Buenos Aires on March 28, 1838. This blockade aggravated to such an extent the financial situation of the province of Buenos Aires, which had to abolish the salary of the masters school, University professors and assignments for hospitals. That same year, there was the sudden death of the wife of roses. Despite these adversities, roses crushed the rebellion of farmers in the South of Buenos Aires led by Pedro Castelli and Benito Miguens in February 1839. He could not help but that the unitary general Juan Lavalle asediara Buenos Aires in August 1840, although a month later he decided to leave the company to see the indifference of the population of the campaign to its destabilizing action. Lavalle ordered the withdrawal of its forces to Santa Fe awaiting a more favourable juncture to attack roses. In September 1840, when the country was exposed to overwhelming pressure from the unit of Lavalle and the French blockade, roses sanctioned a law of expropriation against the unit properties that were available to urban and rural possessions, goods and actions serve to pay for damage caused by the army of Lavalle. Initiated negotiations with the French Admiral Dupotet culminated in the Mackau-spider on 29 October 1840 Treaty, by which term was the French blockade. Roses compensated financially to the French fleet and to change back the Martín García Island, occupied in October 1838.

Free of this conflict, rose focused on resumption of hostilities with two of his most ferocious enemies: Lavalle, in Santa Fe, and Fructuoso Rivera, ruler of the Banda Oriental. Federal troops assembled under the command of Oribe annihilated the army of Lavalle in Quebracho Herrado, in October 1840. His next step was to impose the blockade of Montevideo, task which was assigned to the argentina squad commanded by Admiral Brown in January 1841. Despite the offer of dialogue by French and British diplomats, the Federal troops of Oribe defeated this time Lavalle in Arroyo Grande in February 1842 and proceeded to lay siege to Montevideo. This event sealed the end of the rebellion of the coast against roses for ten years, time that was to last the site of the Uruguayan capital. After the failure of peace negotiations that demanded the withdrawal of the Argentine troops of the eastern band, the English and French fleets decreed the blocking of the Río de la Plata on September 18, 1845. On 19 November, the Anglo-French squad invaded the Argentine rivers, destroyed the batteries that guarded the right bank of the Parana River, burned the town of Cologne and proceeded to the occupation of the island Martín García. Despite this, the lack of ground troops by the invading fleet prevented that the occupation was established; the Anglo-French squadron was then limited to prevent navigation between Paraguay and Corrientes. From there, several were diplomatic efforts by France and England to find a solution to the conflict in the Río de la Plata. Joint propositions in English and French that demanded ending the site of Montevideo were skillfully rejected by rose, who finally convinced the British to finish by separate such a conflict. On February 24, 1849 was signed the Argentine Convention by which put an end to the blockade. The English ships pledged to deliver the island Martín García and evacuate the Río de la Plata in February 1850. The French, to be alone in the fight against Buenos Aires, also rushed to negotiate a peace agreement, not with roses but with general Oribe, signed in Montevideo on August 31, 1850.

When everything seemed to be moving towards the consolidation of dictatorship, there was the unexpected rupture of the Alliance between roses and the general Justo José de Urquiza, caudillo and Governor of between Ríos. The cause of this conflict was the Decree of closure of the navigation of rivers reintroduced by roses and affected the economics of the livestock covered. Under these conditions, may 1, 1851, Urquiza, he livestock Entre Ríos, launched their uprising against Rosas. In partnership with the Government of the Brazil, Urquiza entered the eastern band and brought down the forces of Oribe, until the site of Montevideo on October 8, 1851. The large army of Urquiza, consisting of 10,000 covered, 5,000 unit of Buenos Aires, 2,000 Red Uruguayans and 4,000 soldiers donated by the Government of the Brazil, defeated the Confederate Army of Roses at the battle of Monte Caseros, on February 3, 1852. Rose left the Argentina and settled with his family in a stay of Swarkling, in Southampton, where he lived until the end of his days.

Bibliography.

MALAMUD, C.: Juan Manuel de Rosas, Madrid: Historia 16, 1987.

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