Italian film director, born in Rome on May 8, 1906 and died in the same city on June 3, 1977.
Rossellini was raised in a middle-class Roman family. His father built the cinema Corso, the first modern cinema of Rome, where the young Roberto had the opportunity to attend all projections. Thanks to his father, he had the opportunity to meet many of those who worked in the industry, and when his father died, decided to use any of those contacts to get your first job. Apart from the cinematographic heritage, Rossellini wearing a Christian formation that had moved you his mother.
He started in the industry in 1932 experimenting with sound to create realistic effects. At the same time he trained as a screenwriter, Bender and Decorator, which allowed him to gain the experience that would then lead him to get behind the camera. As stated years later, always had a tendency towards the documentary. His first works were in this field and from 1936 saw the light titles as Prélude à l 'Après-midi d' d'un faune (1937), assisted by his brother, Renzo, who became the musician of his films. He was Assistant Director of Francesco de Robertis on the film Uomini sul fondo (1940), which had been sponsored by the Italian army. Since then the director was consolidated thanks to two circumstances: the contacts that had been made thanks to the business of his father, and the personal friendship with Vittorio Mussolini, son of the dictator.
His first feature film, the nave bianca (1941) was funded by the film Center of the Ministry of marine and presented at the Venice Film Festival, where he won the cup of the national fascist party. This opened his contact in the Government circles and helped that censorship was more permissive with him. The cinema of Rossellini began characterized by grouped into thematic Trilogies. The first was the fascist trilogy, which dealt with the director under the supervision of his friend Vittorio Mussolini to celebrate war heroes. This period spanned from 1941 to 1943, and after the ship bianca, became a pilota ritorna (1942), in commemorating the previous line, but this time sponsored by the air force. Censorship was detected, however a glimpse of anti-war and Rossellini received a new script, which was surprising to him, that never worked with one. L'UOMO della croce (1943) had as its centerpiece the Italian victory over Russia and was shot without any help from the army, in precarious conditions. The film premiered a month before the Allied troops invade Sicily. During this period the fascist government demanded that Rossellini realism based primarily on the use of documentary material, reference to contemporary events and filming in the own landmarks.
It followed the fascist trilogy the trilogy Neorrealista. At the end of the war, Mussolini crackdown eased and Rossellini began to enjoy greater creative freedom. He then opted for a moralistic stance and two months after Rome was liberated, began filming his masterpiece: Rome, open city (1945). In the absence of a producer, Rossellini sold their belongings, asked loans and obtained the help of friends. So he could finish the film and show critics and scholars of cinema that a new phase was beginning. His revolution of style was even higher with its next title, Paisà (1946) was filmed with actors chosen by placing a camera in the middle of a town square and taking advantage of the reactions of onlookers who approached her.
After the death of his son Marco Romano in 1946, Rossellini filmed Germania, anno zero (1947), with a tinge of pessimistic and violent, trying to find a reason to live. This time sought out actors on the streets of Berlin and repeated the same experience than in the previous film, only this time no one came to look. Photographing reality and use non-professional actors were two of the features on which the director built the foundations of neorealism. Among his Trilogies, Rossellini was also used in out other titles in transition. At the height of neorealism, the career of the director took a sudden turn, and decanted to psychological realism. L'amore (1948) was a film of two episodes focused on the actress Anna Magnani, in which the director first used the plane sequence, which helped to hold to this realistic desire. The macchina ammazzacattivi (1948) was one of the most original titles of director, through which theorized on the cinematic ability to show the reality.
The trilogy of solitude also marks a landmark personal as well as professional. In 1948 Ingrid Bergman was offered as actress for his films and Rossellini accepted it. The following year made together Stromboli without using prior script, and then Europe 1951 (1951), film which was filmed in forty-six days. Relationship with Rossellini brought Bergman to divorce from her first husband. Accommodated in Hollywood, he had to return to Europe because of the scandal. The trilogy of solitude, which received its name from the State in which a married woman who lacked communication and understanding, was completed it was immersed with tea always love (1953), which had special impact in the French avant-garde movement.
Rossellini with neorealism commitment not prevented him from exploring all kinds of stories, nor carry out adaptations. The historical fact, his contact with reality, nor was absent from the film. Giovanna d'Arco to the rogo (1954), based on a story of Paul Claudel, explored the musical starring Ingrid Bergman. In 1959 he conducted in India titled documentary that would have your television translation in a series; and that same year went to Vittorio de Sica in the general of della Rovere, with a special interest in contrasting the heroism with cowardice. The film won the David of Donatello for best production, his screenplay was nominated for the Oscar, and Rossellini won the León de Oro at the Venice Festival. The novel by Stendhal gave rise to Vanina Vanini (1961), the story of a princess who falls for a revolutionary. Romanticism was background to the period prior to the unification of Italy, but the film was not at the height of the cinema of Rossellini. In 1962 shared Laviamoci il cervello Ugo Gregoretti, Jean-Luc Godard, Pier Paolo Pasolini, in a more or less pessimistic view of the world that was coming.
His latest titles were tainted by the Catholicism or spirituality that the director had been impregnated by her mother in their young years. Titles like Atti degli apostoli (1969), Agostino d'Ippona (1972) or the Messia (1978) are a clear example. The latter was directly tell the story of Christ and was released a year after the Rossellini died of a heart attack. At the end of his career the director also did work for television inclined towards the historical, such as Socrates (1970) and Blaise Pascal (1975) genre. His inheritance was collected among others, by Federico Fellini, friend and partner of the director since the days of Rome, open city.
1936: Dafne. 1937: Prélude à l 'Après-midi d' a faune.1939: the vispa Teresa; Il tacchino prepotente.1940: Fantasy Sotomarina.1941: Il Ruscello di Ripasottile (and editor). 1976: Concerto per Michelangelo.
[Rossellini was almost all his films screenwriter]
1941: The nave bianca. 1942: A pilota ritorna. 1943: L'uomo della croce; Desiderio.1945: Rome, open city (and producer). 1946: Paisa (and producer). 1947: Germania, anno zero (and producer). 1948: La voce umana e Il miracolo (episodes of L'amore) (and producer); Ammazzacattivi.1949 macchina: Stromboli (and producer); Francesco, Giullare di Dio.1951: Europe 51 (and producer); Envy (episode of the devil always loses). 1952: Dov' and freedom? 1953: Love you always; Ingrid Bergman (episode of women); Napoli' 43 (episode of Amori di mezzo secolo). 1954: Giovanna d'Arco to the rogo; The paura.1958: India.1959: the Rovere.1960 general: fugitives at night; Viva Italy! 1961: Vanina Vanini; Black soul (and dialogue writer). 1962: Illibatezza (episode of Rogopag).
1937: La fossa degli angeli. 1938: A kinsman. 1943: L'invasore. 1952: Les Sept péchés capitaux; Medico condotto. 1963: The Carabinieri.
1943: L'invasore 1962: Benito Mussolini
Works for television:
1959: L'India vista da Rossellini (series). 1961: Torino nei cent'anni. 1964: The iron age. 1966: La prise de pouvoir par Louis XIV. 1967: Idea tell a ' isola. 1968: the acts of the Apostles. 1970: Socrates; The man's struggle for survival. 1971: Blaise Pascal. 1972: Agostini di Pipona l'era di Medici. 1973: Cartesius. 1974: Italy, Anno one. 1976: the Sistine Capdella. 1977: le Centre Georges Pompidou. 1978: Il Messia.
1937: La fossa degli angeli (ay. address). 1954: Orient Express (artistic supervisor). 1973: Grierson (actor).
BONDANELLA, P. The Films of Roberto Rossellini. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
EDGE, r. and BOUISSY, to. You Neo-realism italien. (Lausanne: Claire Fontaine, 1960).
BRUNETTE, P. Roberto Rossellini. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).
GUARNER, José Luis. Roberto Rossellini. (Madrid: Fundamentals, 1973).
QUINTANA, Ángel. Roberto Rossellini. (Madrid: Cátedra, 1995).
ROSSELLINI, Roberto and APRA, a. (ed.) Roberto Rossellini. Il mio method. (Venice: Marsilio, 1987).