Austrian composer; He/She was born in Vienna on January 31, 1797 and died in the same city, November 19, 1828.
Few biographies of composers are so surrounded by legend as the Schubert. Not having achieved fame in life and have had numerous friends that calo in particular and which, over the years, they recalled, each in its own way, the last years next to him, has given rise to a number of legends about his person which are difficult to separate from his biography. These joined the tourist legend that makes visitor Schubert all old Vienna's taverns and Mills from its surroundings, the inspirational music of La Bella Molinera. The schubertian legend has been made, however, autonomous of any type of historical research and has encouraged literary works as unfinished symphony by Alejandro Casona, operettas such as the House of the three girls and movies such as flying my songs.
Twelfth son of the marriage of Franz Theodor Schubert Florian and Elisabeth Vietz (survived only five of the fourteen who, in total, were born), was baptized with the name of Franz Peter. Son of a school teacher, soon noted in the handling of the violin and the piano, instruments that played at home, respectively, his father and his brother Ignaz. Therefore, with only five years, it was necessary to look for more experienced teachers, as Michael Holzer, director of the choir of the parish to which the family belonged Schubert. This predisposition was that his father attempted to let the small enter form part of the "children singers" from the St. Stephan Cathedral (today known as "Vienna Boys Choir"), who was educated at the Stadtkonvikt, internal school created by the Emperor in 1803. The young Franz passed the tests successfully in 1808 and remained in it until 1813. In this Center, Schubert received a careful musical education and met some friends that accompanied him throughout his life, such as Joseph von Spaun and Anton Holzapfel.Recibió also lessons of harmony and composition of Antonio Salieri, the court composer and teacher of Beethoven, at home, for which received a special permit. These were the years in which appeared his first compositions. In 1812, his mother died and appeared the first signs of misunderstanding with his father. In 1813, his last year at the Stadtkonvikt, dates his first Symphony (in d, D 82) and some sixty works. Family circumstances (his father had returned to marry) and personal (sudden death in combat of his young friend the poet Korner, which took several texts for some of his lieder) marked a period of despondency that is stirring, immediately, in a decline in its ratings. However this and no longer singing in the choir after the change of voice, you was extended by one year the scholarship in the Centre, although the young man decided to not accept it for unclear reasons, but which seem related to a desire to change his life of adolescence which would have upset the directors of the institution. On the other hand, his father intended to make him master of the school, so enrolled him at the Normal School of Santa Ana, where he/she obtained the appropriate title on the same course. However, he/she continued attending House of Salieri and dedicated himself increasingly to composition (the opera El Castillo of pleasure of the devil D 84, the mass in f D 105, etc.). Also this year, and in his parish, his mass in f premiered with great success. Two days later he/she composed Margarita the distaff D 118, one of his best songs, based on the monologue of the protagonist of Faust by Goethe, and that seems to have been dedicated to the voice of Therese Grob, his fiancée this season (who had also sung in the premiere of the mass) which could not get married due to lack of financial means. The subsequent execution of the mass in one of the churches in the Centre of Vienna (that of the Augustinians) did not produce you any benefit to Schubert, who went on to work as Assistant to his father. However, the young man was increasingly absorbed by the composition and showed few or no powers for teaching. The volume of pieces composed in the two years he/she spent as an Assistant teacher is such that seems an attempt to assertion of his vocation with an imposed occupation. From this work, stand out, along with the lieder, symphonic pieces, which the composer dedicated to an orchestra in which he/she and his brothers played amateur.
1815 marked the beginning of adult life of Schubert. Via Josef von Spaun, he/she met the poet Mayrhofer and Franz Schober, friends both that would change the course of his life and who would provide him, especially the first, literary material for lieder and operas in the coming years. The relationship of Schubert with Mayrhofer was especially close for years and has given rise to certain legends about a possible homosexual relationship between the two has never been tested and that is part of the many legends hatched around the figure of the Viennese composer. He/She composed more than one hundred and fifty lieder and several singspieler (German equivalent of the zarzuela). From the first, we highlight the King of the Alders D 328 and Rosa de el Espino (Heidenröslein) D 257, both on text of Goethe, which show the mastery of the young composer both in the traditional German song Strophic form as in the developed Lied so much going to due to his work. Supported by his friends, especially by the always faithful Spaun, Schubert decided to find an output other than the teaching professional. For this purpose, Goethe sent two sets of Lieder on his poems as a way to get their support. The master, who had their own railway ideas on how music should be put to his poetry, never answered. At the end of 1817, Schubert decided to try his luck and left school and house their fathers to live with his friend Schober, however, soon was forced to return home and work provided by his father.
In the meantime, his work grew up in almost titanic proportions, although almost never was crowned by success. Publishers did not decide to take the risk to publish any of his Chamber works, or for piano as too difficult for the average public. On the other hand, the young man lacked noble pattern or, at least, wealthy that they depended the Edition. It had, however, a large group of friends that help sustain economic and morally while trying to insert it into the musical world of Vienna, that Schubert did not become ever more than a satellite little or nothing under consideration. In one of these adventures, Schubert met the singer Michael Vogl, baritone retired of the Court Theatre, which was who interpreted for the first time several of his Lieder and with which the young composer began to give its first private auditions. At the same time, he/she decided to leave the lessons with Salieri, whose strict classical sense was small for the romantic genius of Schubert.
Always in search of livelihood, it agreed to give music lessons to the daughters of count Esterházy, cousin of Prince Esterhazy, who was patron of Haydn, in the summer of 1818. His work forced him, also, to compose music for the familiar interpretation. This obligation were fruit his beautiful vocal quartets with piano. The two daughters of the count, seems to have been in love with Schubert of the minor, Carolina, who in his last years, dedicated shocking fantasy in f minor for piano four-hands D 940. Want the legend that was here, too, where contracted composer syphilis that had him to the Tomb, doubtful, since data that early symptoms was not noted until 1823.
Meanwhile, Schubert shared housing in the Centre of Vienna with Mayrhofer. Subsequently, he/she lived with his family, single, or in friends house. He/She often made summer excursions through northern Austria that was giving some of its parts. On the other hand, the Group of friends had been dispersing and by seasons, found enough only. From the onset of his illness, concentrated more in himself and in his music, so far as spending entire days at home composing. It is especially known in this regard the lapse of time in which composed the winter trip D 911 in which practically disappeared from public places, even absent from the interpretation of some of his works. In 1828, on 26 March, he/she managed to give his only public concert Schubert in the Hall of the friends of the music of Vienna. In it he/she played for the first time, always accompanied by his friends, works that today are already classics, as well the Trio for piano violin and Cello in greater D929 Mib or the D932 crossed the Lieder and the star D 939. Following the success of the concert, he/she attempted to publish, again with little success, some of his works. After the summer, always eager to perfection, Schubert began taking lessons in counterpoint, but soon had to leave classes for beginning to occur which was to be the last crisis of his illness. He/She moved to the House of his brother Ferdinand and, after a painful illness, died November 19, 1828, at the age of thirty-one. Certain remarks about Beethoven during the delirium that caused the fever took his brother to bury him next to Beethoven, Schubert had he/she always considered his idol and who had died the previous year. In this way, their graves are in the same cemetery of Vienna and within easy walking distance.
The work of Franz Schubert is wide and varied. His style is based on the created by two geniuses of Viennese Classicism (Haydn and Mozart) and the powerful influence of Beethovenian for reach, but so overwhelming presences and a personal style that stands as hinge between classicism and romanticism, rather than by its personality is already Schubert a full romantic opposite ideology still illustrated that Beethoven profesará always. On the other hand, noted the permeability of the composer not only the designated authors styles, but also the influence of the style of Rossini that invaded Vienna in the years following the end of the Napoleonic wars.
Apart from the most famous Lieder or string quartets, the Viennese composer managed to practically all genres of his time. Shortage of published in the author's life, and even after his death, led to the musicologist Otto Erich Deutsch to make a catalog of his work that kohutek nine hundred and ninety-eight works, of which only some 200 were published throughout the 19th century. For this reason, the work of Schubert does not usually appear numbered by Opus, form number only used for published works, but with the symbol D, corresponding to the last name of Deutsch.
However, before the work of Deutsch and on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Schubert, prepared an edition of his complete works Johannes Brahms and Eusebius Mandycevsky, that the first did not see completed, as he/she died in the same 1897, and who, with his mistakes, has served as the basis to the schubertian interpretation until just ten years ago.
It is regarded as the most important creation schubertian. Notable for its quantity, variety and quality its more than six hundred Lieder for voice and piano. Schubert composed Lieder almost throughout his career, as a relief from other compositions of greater difficulty, as task themselves. In some cases, the amount of songs written for a year reaches almost gigantic proportions. It is the case of years as 1815, in which the young composer seems to have discovered the musical possibilities of poetry and is dedicated to it with a passion that leads him to compose five-, six-, and up to eight different pieces in one day.
The quantity and the youth of these pieces is not obstacle for a mature and full style display almost from his first productions. Not so with his instrumental work, where Yes you can see an evolution from a great follower of classicism style until the of an authentic master that creates, together with Beethoven and by different paths, the style of romanticism.
Composed Schubert Lieder for any occasion, from santos, birthdays and homemade tributes (so Namenstaglied D 695, the Cantata for the birthday of the singer Johann Michael Vogl D 666 or Gutiger, Bester, Weisester D 441, dedicated to the birthday of their master Salieri) to orders for professional singers such as that carried out by Anne Milder Hauptmann Der Hirt resulted auf dem Felsen (the Shepherd on the rock) D 965passing through festive songs to sing with friends in the tavern or the musical meetings that became known as "Schubertiades" (Bundeslied or fellowship song D 258), however, most of the vocal work of Schubert is an attempt to express his intimacy, so that work on the musical plane as the romantic poet in the literary. The abundance of its production and the little frequent corrections in manuscripts have resulted, again on the idea of the romantic poet, a legend of the illuminated musician who composed almost unconsciously. But most seem to their undoubted ease of composition was not accompanied by such unconsciousness, but that the lack of corrections seems due to a work plan: when he/she was not satisfied with what was coming out, or what had gone out, he/she condemned it and restarted the composition, already immediately, already time (sometimes years) after. He/She applies to songs as written about Abends unter der Linde (sunset under the Linden trees) D 235 and 237 on texts by Kosegarten or the three edges of the harpist D 478, 489 and 490 and Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt (only who know nostalgia), all from Goethe's Wilhelm Meister. Thus, the latter correspond to no less than six versions, four for voice and piano D 310 a and b, D 359 and D 481, one for two voices and piano D 877 No. 1 and another for male choir for five voices D 656, while there are two versions of each and one of the first three third of the entitled Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass.
However, the best known of the work liederistica of Schubert, apart from cases such as the Ave María and the trout, are his song cycles. These are, in addition to the short edges of the harpist already mentioned, Die Schöne Müllerin (La Bella Molinera) D 795, Die Winterreise (winter journey) D 911 and the discussed Schwanengesang (swan song) D 957. Of them, they have the first two texts by Wilhelm Müller, poet of second rank whose work impressed especially Schubert, selected texts of his work to carry out two masterpieces of the genus liederistico in them that are two stories of love and pain very romantic taste through different moments sung by the protagonist of the story. Of the two, the winter trip was composed in the last year of life of the musician and responds largely to the self-consciousness that had its final. The songs show a musical language sometimes very advanced (thus Letzte Hoffnung - last hope - or Im Dorfe - in the village-) and a progressive tendency to a nudity in the way that is especially evident in the last song Der Leiermann (the player of panpipe). With respect to La Bella Molinera, its history is the usual romantic heartbreak, well that is masterfully developed by the composer in such a way that it achieves a fusion of voice and piano in which it responds to singer talking with him and illustrating his claims. For their joint beauty, it is virtually impossible to highlight any of twenty Lieder comprising it. Finally, the so-called song of the Swan was not published by Schubert or seems to have responded to its intention to do so in the way in which saw the light. Collection, that is, and not cycle, was published posthumously by Publisher Haslinger according to Schubert's brother, Ferdinand. Comprises the Schwanengesang of two collections of songs, the first on texts by Ludwig Rellstab, and the second of Heinrich Heine, which are completed with the inclusion of Die Taubenpost (pigeon mail) on text by Johann Gabriel Seidl consisting was the last Lied from the Viennese composer. Discussed in this collection to the title, since tradition attached to the Swan a single song before he/she died and that was not the case of a composer as prolific as Schubert. Moreover, the critical battles, initiated in the 1800S by Brahms, the property or inappropriateness of the cyclical interpretation of this collection have resulted in real rivers of ink that does not tarnish, finally, the absolute beauty of the songs that compose it (including the famous Ständchen - Serenade-) in which the composer reaches sometimes the Summit of his art.
As to the form, the Lieder of Schubert can be divided into three sections: the estroficos, composed in the traditional German way, with a single melody and a solo accompaniment for all the verses (but there is also a varied Strophic Lied which introduces certain modifications in the music through a ritornello of the piano or a change of mode); called scenic Lied in which, under the influence of the aria from opera, are sections contrasting hues and tempi that correspond to different feelings of the text; and the developed composition lied (Durch-komponiert Lied) in which dispenses of the stanzas of the poem to serve ideas, moods or events in the poem. Examples of the first are as well known as Seligkeit (happiness) songs D 433, Ave María D 839 or, in the case of the varied Strophic, Sei mir gegrust (I salute you) D 741 or Die Forelle (the trout) D 550. Titles correspond to the so-called scenic Lied as Auf der Riesenkoppe (on the Summit) D 611 or (night) Nachtstuck D 672. They are, finally, developed parts (the King of the Alders) Erlkönig D 328, Gruppe aus dem Tartarus (a group that arises from the Tartar) D 583 or Der Wanderer (Walker) D 489. Cannot set a chronological between different types distinction, since Schubert simultaneously them attentive always to the different characteristics of the poem and his State of mind in front of him.
Apart from songs only, is author Schubert of abundant production for several voices soloists and choir with or without piano. Respond such pieces to the family circle or friends who often requested parts musician to entertain themselves (thus dramatized trios Der Hochzeitbraten - roast the wedding-D 930 or Die Advokaten - lawyers - D 37) or for special circumstances (thus the trio for male voices a cappella Verschwunden sind die Schmerzen D 88 composed to celebrate the liberation of Austria after the Napoleonic wars or the Serenade for mezzo-soprano), choir and piano Zogernd leise D 920, composed for the wedding of some friends. Separate case are his vocal quartets with piano, composed all of them during their stay in the Esterházy Palace and intended for musical evenings of the counts.
Schubert Finally, also approached the great vocal genres of the era: church music and opera, but with uneven success, perhaps motivated by the very different spirit with which the composer dealt with these genres. Following the success of his mass in Fa D105 mentioned in 1814, Schubert wrote rich liturgical music throughout his life, both masses (has eight under his belt) as motets, antiphons and Psalms. Highlights including the Deutsche Messe or German mass D 872, the Salve Regina D 27, Stabat Mater D 175 or the six antiphons for the Domingo de Ramos D 696. With this religious work Schubert enters the 19th century moving away from the classical model of the mass of Haydn or Mozart, and even of the masses by Beethoven. Given that religious faith does not seem to have been the strongest personality schubertian (is revealing concerning the deletion of the words concerning the eternal life in the creed of the last of his masses - if e-flat major D 950-, which hampered largely its premiere, after the death of the author, tried so hard by his brother Ferdinand)(, as well as the deletion of the phrases relating to the Church in the same creed in the in a-flat major D 678), these pieces seem to result of commissions. Among them, the Psalm XCI D 953, composed in 1828 on the Hebrew text and bound to the Viennese synagogue is particularly curious.
Regarding opera genre that interested in particular to Schubert how I could report profits and which failed always, when not by the defects of the libretto, by problems with censorship or, if the work tables, by the lack of success that at the Vienna then had sung in German Theatre. In addition to numerous unfinished fragments, Schubert left several finished operas, some of which arrived to tread the boards, as well as several Singspieler (German equivalent of the Spanish zarzuela that only partially matches to what will later be the operetta of the Strauss and Franz Lehár). They are the first Des Teufels Lustschloss D 84 on Kotzebue already commented out text and three others: Alfonso und Estrella D 732 (romantic drama that has action on the León de el rey Mauregato and part of whose music was used for the winter journey), Gilead D 796 and the count of Gleichen D 918 that remained unfinished at his death. The writers of these operas were three friends of the composer: Schober, Kupelwiesser and Bauernfeld and of them only the latter had true qualities of playwright. It happened, therefore, with the operas that with so many Lieder that the author took verses from friends who had not passed another filter that was not, precisely, the friendship. With respect to the latter, it is usual to comment on the fact that there could very well give fame the composer had not been because the prohibition of the libretto (Bauernfeld was frowned upon by the strict censorship of Metternich) led them to both (librettist and composer) to go to postponing the completion of a project that was really promising. With regard to the Singspieler, we retain a single act of Claudine von Villa Bella 239 D, based on the libretto composed by Goethe in Italy; However, we know that the composer completed it and that, after his death, his brother maid used mistakenly acts second and third to igniting the fire: in addition, composed Schubert Der vierjährige Posten (mail in four years) D 190, on text of Körner, Fernando D 220 on text of Stadler, Die Freunde von Salamanka (friends of Salamanca) D 326 with Mayrhofer textDie Zwillingsbruder (twin brothers) D 647 with text by G. von Hoffamnn and Der Verschworenen (Los Conjurados, also known as Der hausliche Krieg, that is, the domestic war) D 787 with text of Castelli. It is usually added in this paragraph schubertian production the incidental music to the drama Rosamunda of the Helmina von Chézy D 797, despite constituting a resounding failure due to the poor quality of the libretto (Mrs von Chézy was the subject of all kinds of ridicule), is little vocal music with Orchestra of Schubert is listening with some regularity and the only one from which there are several recordings.
The instrumental work of Schubert includes both symphonic and Chamber works. Within the former, it is necessary to emphasize good number of overtures both dedicated to the scene (as well D 644 openings for Die Zauberharfe or the magic harp, failed attempt to continue Mozart's the magic flute) as the concert (are the best example two openings in Italian style D 590 and 591, two of the few works that the author saw performed in life) and his eight symphonies, among which stand out unfinished symphony in b minor D 759 and the Ninth Symphony in Do major D 944, known as "the great" to distinguish it from the sixth D 589, also in c major and smaller than the ninth. Despite having until the ninth, only eight are the symphonies of Schubert, as the seventh, which Deutsch reserved number 849 in its catalogue, is lost and he/she has come to doubt their existence. It is usually called at Grunden-Gastein Symphony, it seems to have been during a trip to these two places in the North of Austria, in the summer of 1825, when Schubert lost the manuscript. In addition, there are numerous fragments of symphonies with which it has come to rebuild a tenth which is intended to recognize part of the Symphony lost, what, given the disorder in which the composer had their roles throughout his life and his almost proverbial cluelessness, would not have anything particular. In his symphonic work, Schubert of the Beethovenian model aware perhaps departs from the impossibility of measured with genius so different from his own, to comply with a more classical style, are influences isolated Beethovenian symphonic universe, especially the first two symphonies of the author of Bonn (the most classic on the other hand), the fourth in c minor D 417 and the sixth in Do major D 589.
The symphonic works of Schubert is divided into two phases marked by the year 1822 which writes the so-called unfinished symphony. With her, and the next, deviates somewhat the composer's designated models to delve into his own style.
Not Schubert wrote no concert, although Yes it left several pieces for solo violin and Orchestra, such as the Rondo in the major D 438, the Konzertstück in d major D 345, the Adagio and Rondo Concertante in f major D 487 or Polonaise in b flat major D 580.
In the field of Chamber and solo piano music, Schubert left a huge production (though not as huge as the Lieder) both composed of finished works as by loose movements that had no chance of (or didn't) conclusion. Regarding these loose pages (thus the Quartet movement in c minor D 703, comparable by its perfection to the eighth Symphony, the movement's Trio for piano, violin and Cello in b flat major D 28 or Notturno D 897 for the same formation) think if not we have pieces that supported themselves and Schubert did not want to integrate into larger constructionssuch as sonatas, trios and Quartets to classic mode. It comes advocating in recent years for the so-called unfinished symphony.
Of those Chamber Music compositions which conform to canonical molds, it is necessary to emphasize, first, those compositions that are based on other mostly vocal works by the same author. It is the case, among others, of the Quartet in d minor "the death and the maiden", D 810, one of whose entries is based on the same title D 531 Lied; the piano in the greater "the trout" Quintet D 667, based again on a Lied, this time the 550 D; Introduction and variations on "Trock'ne Blumen ' for flute and piano in my lower 802 D, based on the penultimate of the Lieder of La Bella Molinera and, finally, the Quartet in the minor D 804, which uses the theme of the third intermission of the cited music to Rosamunde, theme which recurs also in one of the impromptu of the 935 D. Something like we find in the Wanderer-Fantasie for piano in c major D 760, based on the mentioned Lied Der Wanderer D 489.
Also be mentioned works such as two Trios for piano, violin & Cello in b flat major D 898 and in e flat major D 929 (this last is known Andante in c minor that is supposed to be coming from a Swedish folk song), the octet for strings and winds D 803 and, above all, the great Quintet in c major with two cellos D 956composed in the last year of life of the composer and is one of the best examples of music for string of all romanticism.
Music for piano solo, it is necessary to establish an initial distinction between music that Schubert composed taste and that was almost never published during his lifetime as too difficult editors, and music simple play that he/she wrote former profess to be published. This distinction, while necessary, does not affect at all the quality of the music, since Schubert was able to write music equally good with lower technical difficulty. They are probably the best example of the third and the sixth of their D 780 musical moments, not only published as sheets of Almanac, but written for this purpose, although their quality is far above this format. The same can be said of his series of waltzes, landler and Scottish such as the eight Laendler if flat major D 378, the eight Scottish D 529, the twelve Allemandes D 420 or two collections of waltzes Valses sentimentales D 779 et Valses nobles D 969, which were to inspire the Valses nobles et sentimentales of Ravel.
Of his sonatas and fantasies, include Sonata in a flat major D 557, the in e flat major D 568 and the two collections of Impromptus D 899 and 935 respectively., as well as the aforementioned fantasy for piano four hands in f minor D 940.
Mass No. 1 in f major, D. 105; performers: Popp, Donath, Fassbaender, Dallapozza, Schreier, Fischer-Dieskau, choir and Symphony Orchestra of the Radio of Bavaria; Director: Wolfgang Sawallisch. EMI 627-252 927-2 (2 CD). Mass No. 2 in g major, D. 167; performers: Popp, Donath, Fassbaender, Dallapozza, Schreier, Fischer-Dieskau, choir and Symphony Orchestra of the Radio of Bavaria; Director: Wolfgang Sawallisch. EMI 567-747 407-2. Mass No. 6 in e-flat major, D. 950; performers: Donath, Fassbaender, Araiza, Schreier, Fischer-Dieskau, chorus of the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra of the Radio of Bavaria; Director Wolfgang Sawallisch. EMI 555-769 223-2. Piano sonatas; Maria Joao Pires. Warner/Erato 3984270042 (2 CDs) symphonies No. 1 and no. 2. Performers: Royal Philharmonic of Galicia; Director: Hetmult Rilling. Complete / hänssler 98312 symphonies No. 3 and nº4.Galicia Royal PO/Rilling. Select/hänssler 98310 symphonies 1,2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Performers at the Festival of Bath; Director: Yehudi Menuhin. EMI 5733592 CZS (2 CDs). Symphonies No. 8 and no. 9; Performers: Orchestra of the Bath Festival; Director: Yehudi Menuhin. EMI 5733622 (2 CDs) CZS Winterreise. Performers: Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone) and Gerald Moore (piano). Deutsche Gramophon, DG 415 187-2. Die Schöne Müllerin. Performers: Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone) and Gerald Moore (piano). Deutsche Gramophon, DG 415 186-2. Schwanengesang, An die Musik, An Silvia, Die Forelle, Heidenröslein, Im Abendrot, Der Musensohn, Der Tod und das Mädchen, interpreters: Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone) and Gerald Moore (piano). Deutsche Gramophon, DG 415 188-2. Die Schöne Müllerin. Performers: Lehmann and Ulanowsky (recording of the year 1942). Kingdom/Vocal Archive goes 1195. An die Laute, An die Musik, An Silvia, Der Einsame Im Abendrot, Liehaber in allen Gestalten, Lied eines Schifers an die Dioskuren, Der Musensohn, Schwanengesang (D 957, no. 4); performers: Fritz Wunderlich (tenor) and Hubert Giesen (piano); Deutsche Gramophon DG 429 933-2.
Fischer-DIESKAU, Dietrich; The "Lieder" by Schubert, trad. of Adriana Vigil Hochleitner (Madrid: 1971).
EINSTEIN, Alfred; Music in the romantic era, trad. from Elena Giménez (Madrid:1986)
MASSIN, Brigitte; Franz Schubert, two vol.; Trad. of Isabel Asumendi (Madrid: 1991)
PAUMGARTNER, Bernhard; Franz Schubert, trad. Bethlehem Bas Álvarez (Madrid: 1992).