Biography of Martin Scorsese (1942-VVVV)

Director, producer, screenwriter, actor, and film historian American born in Queens (New York) on November 17, 1942.

Born in the shadow of the Italian emigration, his childhood was spent beside his grandparents while she studies the Cardinal Hays in his studies. In the early years of the Decade of the sixties he entered New York University, where studying English literature - which does not end - and cinema of Haig Manoogian. Its formation coincides, therefore with the development and spread of a new cinematic style around the world, imposed by young directors who are rebelling against the forms laid down by a film in traditional excess. In this environment, impassioned by renovating currents, get out their University practices that allow you, in 1965, to obtain the degree of Master of Arts.

Contemporary of Brian de Palma, Michael Wadleigh and Jim McBride, among others, his first professional attempt continues to be an anomalous project, resulting rather from concern with open road to tell of a leisurely reflection on history and how to count it. Who's that knocking at my door? (1968), result of multiple versions and with several titles, is finally released - always with the help of his teacher and mentor Manoogian - a distributor of porn - who want to make their way in commercial theaters in "serious" - and even receives a prize at the Festival of Sorrento. However, these final years of the Decade are contradictory to the young director, who fails to conclude many of its projects and tenders, including a proposed teaching that is expelled as a professor at the University of New York.

After taking over various tasks in various documentaries, the challenge offered by Roger Corman to direct Boxcar Bertha (1972), with which enters full production of low-cost and rigorous methods of work although, surprisingly, with a good dose of freedom. The result is not quite the expected, while in the circuit of series B becomes good business. However, this and other works make it to acquire enough experience to take on more elaborate own challenges.

The first important step gives it with mean streets (1973), a story that includes the "little Italy" of New York through several characters which translate the vital concerns of the director, prelude to the predominant theme of his work. From various profiles delves in low riding mafia, violence and social drama, the Church and the ancient customs, in the culture that has grown the generation that emerged in the Decade of the forties. Passion for cinema and music is also noted in the images used and in the songs that includes the Ribbon, which is well received in the fields more hipsters from the mid-1970s, while confirming the first important artistic links with Robert de Niro and Harvey Keitel.

With a very strong personality, Scorsese makes stories that identify you in the Group of renovators of heterogeneous proposal that feeds the new American cinema, hard, direct and current. More influenced by the current European copyright, you don't make a commitment when they offered roll Alicia already doesn't live here (1974), history with great warmth in which a housewife, after the death of her husband, decides to start a trip in order to achieve his dream: to be a singer. A vital story, full of contradictions for Alice (Ellen Burstyn, who received an Oscar for this role) who, in your itinerary, will be realizing that life holds many surprises.

At the opposite pole - although to some extent it can be seen as complementary - Taxi Driver (1976), is a bet special Scorsese, De Niro and screenwriter Paul Schrader. Without a doubt one of the most complete works of its director, focuses on loneliness and schizophrenia of Travis, an ex-marine to the Viet Nam war participated in direct. Ghosts surround you, both when driving your taxi as when it is isolated in his ramshackle apartment; only to know Iris (Jodie Foster) and Betsy (Cybill Shepherd) realizes the need to put an end to everything around him, as if he were the true Savior. Imposing work of De Niro and the other protagonists, as well as the narrative structure that Scorsese printed history, gave his career the push she needed, all aided by the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival.

From this moment, Scorsese can walk at your own pace, since it is one of the indisputable from the seventies and eighties, although films such as New York, New York (1977) and the King of comedy (1982) have not attained the expected results. However, in the memory of viewers will always be the portrait of Boxer Jake LaMotta in Toro salvaje (1980) - Oscar Best Actor and mounting - and the night nightmare that was After Hours, (Jo, what a night!) (1985) - award for Best Director in Cannes, with his quest for realism in the environment, says aggressiveness and the confusion of the perception of reality.

The release of the films by the director following aroused the same interest and, although the quality of his work can be discussed in some cases (the color of money, 1986 - Oscar for Paul Newman-, the last temptation of Christ, 1988), always remarkably (one of our 1990 - Oscar for Joe Pesci, in an exceptional role-). Scorsese has used his followers to his anti-establishment stance - more staff in some cases than in others-, either in own scripts or adaptations, which makes it mean as an observer from the most diverse social and human constants, while they imported into time and history.

It is as well as continues his work in the excellent and colorist the age of innocence (1993), triangular story, love in New York at the end of the 19th century - the Oscar to the best costumes-, received good work from Daniel Day-Lewis, Michelle Pfeiffer and Winona Ryder, and Casino (1995), proposal that choose Las Vegas to analyse the culture of the murky business with all links that can be around money and morals of the corrupter. Film, once surprising, with the masterful interpretation of his usual Robert de Niro, Sharon Stone - in one of his best roles - and effective grandeur of Joe Pesci.

Even though he doesn't work in the second half of the 1990s, Scorsese seems to close this phase of his career with an intimate, sensitive, politically correct and monastic history. Kundun (1997), the biography of the Dalai Lama, which comes at a time in which the world of the cinema is especially sensitive by the events in Tibet and Buddhist spirituality projecting from their monasteries. The film is all an explosion of visual, slow in its narration, and lack of incentives beyond a highly effective planning and its subject within the reach of a large number of spectators.

In any case, throughout its history the fundamental issues that have always fascinated and dominated the Director can be seen. One of these is the destructive capacity of its characters, always obsessed with power, emotional crises and personal tragedy, related to some of the ingredients that "move" to the world: sex and religion. With these contents, the camera becomes the creative resource that surrounds and defines: both the image and the sound become an often unavoidable role; the viewer knows the details of the characters, and up to its interior, with a simple touch or movement, which encourages an encounter or rejection of that which is seen. This is how Scorsese constructed his universe, in which the human condition in general is dissected thoroughly its nuances.

Considering that there is not always absolute affiliations, we can forget his passion for good cinema and respect and admiration for directors who has always honoured (from Michael Powell to Akira Kurosawa), good music - knowledge applied continually in the soundtracks of his films, the joint work done by Scorsese with Robert de Niro, his collaborations in television projects with Steven Spielbergtheir relationship and generational bonding with George Lucas, Brian de Palma or Francis Ford Coppola, circumstances which, along with his films, forcing no doubt considered Martin Scorsese as one of the most important filmmakers of the last third of the 20th century.

At the end of 2002, the American filmmaker released Gangs of New York, one of the most anticipated films of recent years. The Ribbon, based on the homonymous work by Herbert Asbury, recreates the ruthless violence that lived New York streets in the second half of the 19th century. This new work, Scorsese received the Golden Globe for best director of the year and his name rang in all pools as favorite to the Oscar from Hollywood but, finally, the great film industry returned to forget one of their great masters.

In 2004 he presented his new work, the Aviator, a film that tells the story of the film director, businessman and adventurer U.S. Howard Hughes, who was played by Leonardo DiCaprio. The film, while it attained the Golden Globe for best film, failed again in the delivery of the Oscar, as only got the statuettes of the technical categories (photography, installation, costumes and art direction), and saw as the most important Oscar (best film and best direction) were going to stop the film from Clint Eastwood , Million Dollar Baby.

In 2005 he turned away from fiction and released a long-awaited documentary, No direction home, the narration of the life of Bob Dylan, funded by the BBC. In the interviews, recordings of various performances are interspersed (including one recorded in 1959 with his companions at school, when he was only eighteen years old) and other documents that come to the spectator the intense life of American singer. Change of registration for 2006, in which presented the infiltrators (The Departed), with acting duel between Leo diCaprio and Matt Damon, and the always valuable contribution of Jack Nicholson. In 2007, the director received 3 Oscar for this movie, although many had wanted this great recognition for other works of greater value. In 2008, new change for its work: made the documentary Shine a Light on the Rolling Stones rock group, documenting their A Bigger Bang Tour tour.

In 2010, I'm released his film Shutter Island, the Golden Globes Ceremony made him the prestigious Cecil B. de Mille award to his career. At the end of 2011 scheduled the premiere of Hugo Cabret, a 3D movie, with Jude Law.

Filmography

As director:

Short films and feature films:

1963: What's Girl Like You Doing In a Place Like This? (and screenwriter) 1964: It's Not Just You, Murray (and screenwriter). 1967: The Big Shave (and writer and editor). 1974: Italianamerican (and screenwriter and actor). 1975: American Boy: A Profile of Steven Prince (and actor). 1987: Bad (Michael Jackson music video). 1990: Made in Milan.

Feature films:

1968: Who's That Knocking at My Door? (and argument and co-writer). 1970: Street Scenes 1970 (and producer, co-writer and actor); The killers of honeymoon (only some scenes). 1972: Boxcar Bertha (and actor). 1973: mean streets (and co-writer and actor); On the track of the crime (just some scenes). 1974: Alice doesn't live here anymore. 1976: Taxi Driver (and actor). 1977: New York, New York. 1978: The last Waltz (and actor). 1980: raging bull (and actor). 1982: the King of comedy (and actor). 1985: Jo, that night! (and actor); "Mirror, mirror" (episode of "Amazing stories", for TV). 1986: the color of money (and actor). 1988: the last temptation of Christ (and co-writer). 1989: learning (episode of "New York stories"; and actor). 1990: Goodfellas (and co-writer). 1991: the Cape of fear. 1993: The age of innocence (and co-writer and actor). 1994: Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies (and screenwriter and Narrator). 1995: Casino (and screenwriter). 1997: Kundun.1999: Bringing Up the Dead. 2002: Gangs of New York.2004: the aviador.2005: No direction home: Bob Dylan.2006: The Departed (infiltrators) 2007: The Key to Reserva (reserve key) - advertising for TV-2008: Shine a Light (documentary) 2009: Shutter Island 2011: Hugo Cabret

As producer:

1990: PoV (prod. Executive); The timadores.1993: the gangster girl. 1994: Eric Clapton: Nothing But the Blues. 1995: Clockers: camels. 1996: Grace of My Heart (prod. Executive) 1997: Kicked in the Head (prod. Executive). 1998: Hi - Lo Country.

Other works as an actor:

1976: Cannonball.1978: Roger Corman: Hollywood Wild Angel. 1979: Movies Are My Life. 1980: Vatican show.1981: Il Pap'occhio. 1983: Pavlova: A Woman for All Time. 1985: Around midnight. 1990: Akira Kurosawa's dreams; The Grifters (voice). 1991: witch hunt. 1992: Music for the Movies: Bernard Herrmann. 1994: Quiz Show: the dilemma; Jonas in the desert. 1995: Search and Destroy (and prod. Executive). 1996: Wild Bill: Hollywood Maverick; The Typewriter, the Rifle & the Movie Camera. 1997: The Race to Save 100 Years. 1998: A la recherche de Kundun avec Martin Scorsese; With Friends Like These.

Works for television as an actor:

1994: American Cinema (series). 1996: La Mémoire retrouvée. 1997: Frank Capra completo American Dream; Dreams of Tibet (series); A Salute to Martin Scorsese. 1998: AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies. 1999: Il dolce cinema.

Other works:

1963: Inesita (photographer). 1968: Obsessions (scriptwriter). 1970: Woodstock (ay. address and super Assembly). 1971: Medicine Ball Caravan (prod. associate and editor); Thus speaks the amor (ay. mounting). 1972: Elvis on Tour (super. mounting).1973: Unholly Rollers (super. mounting).

Bibliography

AA VV. conversations with Martin Scorsese. Madrid: Plot editions, 1987.

BALAGUER, Carlos. Martin Scorsese. Madrid: Ediciones JC, 1993.

DOMECQ, Jean-Philippe. Martin Scorsese, un rêve italo-americain. Paris: Hatier, 1986.

TAYLOR, Bella. Martin Scorsese. [New Jersey] Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press Inc., 1981.

THOMSON, David and Christie, Ian (eds.). Scorsese on Scorsese. London: Faber and Faber, 1989.

WEISS, Marion. Martin Scorsese. A guide to References and Resources. Boston [mass.]: G. K. Hall and Co., 1987.

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