Poet and English playwright, born in Stratford-upon-Avon (Warwickshire) two or three days before the April 26, 1564 (date that was baptized) and died on 23 April 1616. It is the maximum writer in the English language, best known, the most translated and one on which more books have been written. In his role as poet and the playwright he converted the English language in the vehicle with which to express all the emotions and possible human passions. He knew human nature, and his characters breathe life of its own because they are radically different individuals. No other dramatist has created so many universal characters. His works are the most represented in the whole world. As with his other great contemporary, Cervantes, not much is known about his life, but enough to get an idea and be able to offer a biographical note.
William Shakespeare was baptized in the Church of the Holy Trinity of Stratford-upon-Avon on April 26, 1564, probably no more than two or three days after his birth, as it was the custom of the time. Therefore, the date of his birth is celebrated traditionally 23 April, which was also the day of his death. He was the eldest son of John Shakespeare, a merchant who, among other goods, was devoted to the gloves and wool, and which came to have important positions in local politics, as for example the bailiff and justice of the peace. He had married Mary Arden, who came from a family of higher social rank. They had eight children. In 1556, was given the post of official taster in beer. At the peak of his career, was father of two sons, William and Gilbert (1566-1612). Two daughters, Joan and Margaret, had died in infancy. Another, Joan, was born in 1569; Richard, in 1574, and Edmund, in 1580; This was an actor in London and died at age 27.
Child, William surely went to the local school, and, later, could go to secondary school in the New School completo King. There I would fundamentally study Latin grammar, rhetoric, logic, and some texts of classical literature. On Sunday the family went to church, where the father, given its range, sat in a prominent place. Sound phrases from the Bible, the homilies and prayers books would leave an important imprint on the mind of the child. Most likely the first contact that Shakespeare had with the world of theater was through groups of comedians who came to Stratford, and that his father had to give official permission for action. As William entered adolescence, the fortune of the father declined: filled with debts and lost the good name and reputation that it had. Shakespeare later helped him recover fortune and titles.
In 1582, at age 18, he married Anne Hathaway, of Shottery, a village located a mile from Stratford. The bride was 8 years older than her husband and was in advanced stage of gestation when they married. His first daughter, Susana, was baptized in the Church of the Trinity may 27, 1583, and twins Hamnet and Judith, 2 February 1585. During the next seven years does not have any information of his life, except that surely won it as a school teacher in a village of the region.
Some authors have speculated on the possibility that outside lawyer, soldier, sailor, actor, printer, or traveller, but the only thing that is known is that at some point he left Stratford and joined a theatrical company, went to London and began to write. So everything that happens in the life of Shakespeare is related to two cities: Stratford and London. It is unknown what the exact chronology of those events.
In 1587, one of the actors of the company "The men of the Queen" died shortly before the company visited Stratford. Shakespeare occupy the vacancy is something which enters perfectly possible and so it has been speculated. The first allusion to his person shows it as an actor turned author and which aroused the envy of other author; Robert Greene, who in 1592 referred to Shakespeare as "a usurper Crow that supposed himself able to shout in white verse as the best of you" and making "is considered the only sacude-escenas of the country," alluding to his surname. These words suggest rivalry and parody of a verse of Enrique VI, which shows that it was already known in literary circles of London.
Shakespeare had no residence fixes in London and used to live on a pension. It is not known how often visited his family in Stratford, although it seems that each day had more awareness that there was where were their roots. In 1596 he helped his father to get a coat of arms and be knighted. Hamnet died in August of that same year. The following year he thought in Stratford as their permanent home and invested in a large property to buy the best House in the village, New Place, next to the Guild Chapel and school. During the next few years grew his fame and public recognition, both in Stratford and London. In 1598, a writer less, Francis Meres, commended Shakespeare in one of his books, both from the point of view of tragedy and comedy, and mentioned a series of works which give us an idea of their dates of composition. The list is considerable for an author of 34 years and he is considered a late writer.
In October 1598, Richard Quiney, whose son was married to Judith, the second daughter of Shakespeare, went to London to speak on behalf of the Corporation of Stratford, for some problems with fire and bad weather. He also wrote Shakespeare for a loan of 30 pounds, large enough at the time sum as to demonstrate a strong relationship. Shakespeare's father died in 1601, and in May of the following year paid 327 pounds for the purchase of 127 acres of land in the old town of Stratford. In 1604 he lived in London in the House of a Huguenot family named Mountjoy, and was involved in the marital problems of the daughter. In 1605 he paid 440 pounds in respect of leasing of parish tithes for 31 years. The amount gives idea of the importance of the operation. In June 1607, his daughter Susana married a distinguished physician, John Hall, Stratford. Susanna was the smartest and the favorite of her father and left her and her husband the greater part of their heritage. Her only granddaughter Elizabeth, the last direct heir, was baptized in next February.
To 1610 seems the interest of Shakespeare by Stratford had grown, and increasingly retreated more often to his home in New Place. He was only 46 years old, and probably had a health problem. In March 1613 he bought a House with barn next to the Blackfriars Theatre, in London, by 140 pounds, more as an investment than intended residence. His last three brothers died in that same year. At the end of 1614 and 1615 was involved in any dispute arising from the fencing of land, whose tithe possessed. In February 1616, his second daughter Judith married Thomas Quiney, forcing Shakespeare to change the will, which was signed on 25 March. Most likely at this time I knew that he was mortally ill.
According to his grave, he died on 23 April and is buried in a prominent place of the presbytery of the Church of the Trinity. There you can visit today still his grave and that of his family. His widow, Anne Hathaway, died in August 1623. John Hall in 1635, Susanna in 1649, and Judith in 1661. Elizabeth, granddaughter of Shakespeare and his last descendant, had no children or Thomas Nash and her second husband, John Bernard. He died in 1670. All of them are buried in the Church of the Trinity, with the exception of Judith, who is in the cemetery.
Shakespeare was born in the best English literary moment, in the golden age of British literature. Elizabeth I had accomplished in his reign, prosperity and political stability. Patriotism was a feeling on the rise and the continent came the influences of classical knowledge and of the Renaissance. Arts, in general flourished, and the theatre, in particular, was the genre par excellence. The first important translations of Ovid, Apuleius, Horacio, Heliodorus, Plutarch, Homer, Seneca and Virgilhad been made. It seems that Shakespeare knew most of them and that it weighed quite Ovidand Plutarch.
In this same period appeared the Palacio of pleasure, of William Painter, an important collection of stories that included some of Boccaccio; Holinshed's Chronicles; the Euphues of John Lyly; the Arcadia and Astrophil and Stella, Sidney; as well as the first books of the Queen of the fairies, Spenser, books, all of them Shakespeare should know.
James Burbage, cabinetmaker of profession and actor in the company of the "Earl of Leicester completo Players", built in wood the first Theatre in England. It was called The Theatre. His son Richard would then work with Shakespeare. The dates of construction of the most important theatres are as follows:
The Rose (1592).The Swan (1595).Blackfriars (1596).The Globe (1599).The Fortune (1600).Red Bull (1600).
All of them were located on the South Bank of the Thames.
Unlike what happened in the French Theatre, Spanish or Italian, women could not act in the scenarios and the female characters were represented by young boys. It seems that homosexual relations were frequent and tolerated.
The theatres were made of wood and were either octagonal or circular. They were discovered and the patio of armchairs lacked seats. They had three galleries. The two lower had boxes while top was run. The first two were worth a Crown, and the highest two pence. Looked good from everywhere and they were pretty seating places; for example, in El Globo fit 1,200 spectators. The stage was completely open and there was no curtain. Decoration was very low but the costume was very rich. The works began at three in the afternoon and the orchestra played at the intermission.
The companies were under the amparo and protection of some noble, and the Crown encouraged shows. With the "Chamber-lain completo Men", Shakespeare became a complete man of the theatre. He was actor, director, Manager and co-owner of the balloon, which was the theatre that replaced that James Burbage was founded. Shakespeare was the only dramatist of his time who had a stable relationship with one company.
That must take into account something very important is that at that time there were no copyright. Texts are learned from memory and then be transcribed; Indeed, the issues were beyond the control of the author. Drama was written as a libretto for the sole purpose of being represented. Theatre was not conceived to be simply read.
In the case of Shakespeare, there were two types of issue: format in fourth, which were full of inaccuracies and errors and additives, and the Folio, which were more cared. The first folio was published in 1623 and 1,200 copies were printed. Appeared a second folio in 1632 and a third folio in 1663, with a second printing in 1664. The last, fourth folio appears in 1685.
It should be noted that in the first folio is only ensured the integrity of the contained text. Shakespeare wrote 35 books in total, including comedies, histories and tragedies. During his lifetime, 18 works were published in fourth. The texts are extremely corrupt, as a result of the reconstruction made from memory by some of the cast members. Critics have also distinguished between rooms "good" and "bad" bathrooms, always with respect to the folio Edition.
The beginnings of Shakespeare as a writer are dark. He is not retained any rest and even his first works demonstrate a verbal power that suggests a writer already experienced. In addition the editors of the first Folio not sorted the works in chronological order of composition, but by grouping them in a generic sense: comedies, histories and tragedies. But the divisions are imperfect. Still be adept chronology proposed by E.K. Chambers.
The only works that Shakespeare wrote for publication are the narrative poems Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece, published in 1593 and 1594, short respectively, and with a dedication of the author to Henry Wriothesley, Duke of Southampton, and the poem The Phoenix and the Turtle, published in 1601.
It is one of the first comedies's news, written around 1592-93, although it was not published until 1623 in the first folio. The argument derived from folktales in prose, and the dialogues are still quite limited. Some of the monologues are authentic masterpieces of dramatic and comedic prose. The work may not reveal a great dramatist but a great writer. The main source is the story of Felix and Felismena, included in the Diana of Jorge de Montemayor. The two gentlemen are Valentine and Proteus, friends who fall in love of Silvia and Julia. The entanglements of love between the two couples are augmented by scenes of disguises and misunderstandings.
There is a legend that Shakespeare wrote this play because Queen Elizabeth wanted to see "Sir John in love". He was published in a very bad quarter, in 1602, and, despite its superficial naturalism has a literary basis. Some of the characters derive from the Enrique IV. His central character, Falstaff, is all a finding. Falstaff decides to make them love the wives of Ford and Page, two Knights of Windsor. It sends the same letter of love to both women. Husbands return notified by Nym and Pistol, at Ford House, enclosed to Falstaff in a basket, cover it with dirty clothes and throw it into the Thames. In the second attempt of deception, Falstaff, who appears dressed as a fat woman, receives a thrashing of sticks. There is a subargumento that has to do with the courtship of Anne, the daughter of Page, by three suitors. Finally, and against the will of their parents, get to escape with the young Fenton, that is who she loves.
It is a tragicomedy written around 1604, but not printed until the first Folio of 1623. It is a difficult, complicated and filled with moral implications. The Duke of Vienna, under the pretext of a trip to Poland, leaving the Government in the hands of his subordinate Angelo, which further reinforces the strict laws against sexual freedom. Condemned to death to Claudio, a young man who has left expectant mothers to Julietta. The sister of Claudio, Isabella, who is a novice, he implores Angelo by his brother's life. This consent to spare her life if she agrees to be his lover. The Duke, disguised as a friar, get Isabella to accept a date with Angelo, but instead is Mariana, who was engaged to Angelo and still wants it. Finally, the head of Claudio is saved by the of a pirate, Angelo is forgiven and marries Mariana; Lucio, in turn, marries a prostitute, and the Duke proposes marriage to Isabella. The work is very bold and very modern in their approaches to the relationship that exists between sex and power, and in terms of the importance that has the power of seduction.
Written about 1590, published in the first folio of 1623. He is a matter related to the enmity between Syracuse and Ephesus. It is based on the tradition of the Roman comedies and, specifically, in the Menaechmi of Plautus. It is the story of two completely equal twins and the problems arising from the alleged situations of misunderstandings and false identities. Only the simultaneous presence of the two brothers on stage resolved the conflict of father, Egeon, who retrieves his two sons and wife lost, Emilia, became Abbess of a series of accidents of fate.
Written to 1598-99, is published for the first time in 1600. Their main sources are a novella of Bandello and an episode of the Orlando furioso of Ariosto. Among the comedies he has enjoyed a great popularity and has been very represented and admired. The Prince of Aragon and his courtiers, Claudio and Benedick, visit Leonardo, Duke of Messina, father of Hero and uncle of Beatrice. There is a romance between Beatriz and Benedick. Meanwhile, don Juan, the evil brother of the Prince, tries to spoil the marriage of Claudio, see a Hero in the arms of Borachio, although it is actually a disguised servant. Hero is publicly denounced by Claudio on their wedding day and apparently dies printing. Finally, the ignominy of don Juan is discovered and Benedick married to Beatriz and Claudio with a lady, covered with a veil, cousin of Hero, and which finally turns out to be the own Hero. The happy ending of a double wedding has always given a great scenic game.
Surely written and represented hacia1595 and published in fourth in 1598. It seems that Shakespeare wrote already for a more composed audience. It employs a vast record of styles in prose and in verse. The work is an absolute entertainment based on artifice, but also invites the critical intellectual attitude. It is a work of ideas and debate, but also of simple humanity. The King of Navarre and three of his men have vowed to retire to the study, fasting and abstinence. But the arrival of the Princess of France with an Embassy and her bridesmaids company, oblige them abandon their votes. The King falls for the Princess and her Knights of the ladies. The plot progresses between costumes and divertimenti prompted by other characters, as don Adriano Armando and his extravagant language, Holofernes, the teacher of school, Dull, the Constable, Sir Nathaniel, the cure, and Castard, clown. News about the father of the Princess's death interrupted the Idyll, and ladies Knights impose a one year test. The work ends with a beautiful song of the OWL and the cuckoo.
See a Midsummer night's dream, the.
Written between 1596 and 1598, it was printed in 1600. The main source is the first history of the fourth day at Il Pecorone, a collection of stories of Giovanni Fiorentino. Other sources are the Zelanto, of Munday, and the Gesta Romanorum. Bassanio, a noble but poor Venetian, asks his friend Antonio, a wealthy merchant, that pay you 3,000 ducats that allow them to woo the wealthy heiress Portia. Antonio, who has all your money spent on adventures abroad, decides to ask given the sum to Shylock, a Jewish usurer. Shylock agrees to leave the money on the condition that if the sum is not returned on the fixed date, Antonio will have to give a pound of his own flesh. By his father's will, Portia is going to marry the suitor that, among three chests (one gold, one silver and one lead), choose one that contains his portrait. Bassanio chooses the successful, which is the lead and promises to Portia. Hear Antonio boats have sunk and that the debt has not been met, with what Shylock demands his pound of flesh. Portia disguises lawyer and her maid Nerissa's Assistant and arise to defend Antonio. The difficulty lies in that it can only be meat and that not even a single drop of blood may spill. Subsequently, Shylock is unmasked as a conspirator and the Grand Duke spares him life, but gives half of his wealth to Antonio and the other half to the State. Antonio forgives him his part if Jew becomes Christian and its properties passed to his daughter Jessica, who is married to a Christian, why he has gone far and has been disinherited. The work ends with the arrival at port of Antonio boats safely.
Registered in 1599, it was probably written before. It was published in the Folio of 1623. Frederick has usurped the domains of the Duke, his brother. Celia, the daughter of Frederick, and Rosalind, the daughter of the Duke, seen a bout of fighting in which Orlando, son of Sir Rowland de Boys defeat a powerful adversary. Rosalind and Orlando fall in love. With the death of the father of Orlando, this has to escape from the cruelty of his brother Oliver. Frederick, to know that Orlando is the son of a friend of the exiled Duke, expelled Rosalind of his court. This man wears, named after Ganymede, and Celia happens to be his sister Aliena. They live in the forest of Ardeny there are with Orlando, which has joined with the Duke fled. Oliver goes to the forest to kill Orlando, but is saved by a lion, repents, and falls for Aliena. The wedding is set for the next day. Ganymede warned Orlando that, through magic, will Rosalind appears and they marry. When all are United in the presence of the Duke fled to the double wedding, Celia and Rosalind removed their costumes. Frederick, the usurper, has finally become a religious man and has restored the Duchy. It is the work that includes more songs.
Written around 1592, published in the Folio of 1623. The argument comes from Ariosto. A drunken tinker, from Warwickshire, is found in the field and led by a Lord to a castle. Despite their protests, it is treated royalty under the argument that it is a noble who has lost his head. Baptista of Padua has two sons, Katherina the Shrew, which is the largest, and Bianca, which has many suitors but who may not marry until her older sister does. Petruchio, a gentleman of Verona, intends to woo Katherina to win the dowry and help his friend Hortensio get to Bianca. It makes you believe that the bad manners of the girl are good and puts it into evidence, in various ways; at the end, you get to tame it. Lucentio, a farmer, has managed to Bianca masquerading of school teacher. Hortensio is consoled by marrying a wealthy widow. Three couples play at the final party to see which of the three wives are more submissive. Katherina ends up praising the husband as Lord, owner and sovereign.
The work was printed in the first folio of 1623. As a Measure for Measure, is it considered a tragicomedy or "problem Comedy" (a comedy of conflict). The main source is the Decameron of Boccaccio, or the translation of Painter or in the French version of Antoine le Macon. Bertram, the young count of the Rousillon, is called to the death of his father at the Court of the King of France. He leaves his mother and Helena, daughter of the famous doctor Gerard de Narbon. The King is ill with an incurable disease and Helen, who loves to Bertram, goes to Paris and cure it by a formula of his father. As a reward you are allowed to choose her husband. She named Bertram, who reluctantly accepts. Bertram is going with the Duke of Florence and leaves her pregnant. She finds him in Florence courting Diana, the daughter of his host. It tells them who is and attends a midnight appointment as if it was Diana. Helena Gets the ring of Bertram, condition that it had to be her husband. Bertram returns to his mother's House and finally repents of his behavior and returns with his wife.
It was written to 1601 and printed in the Folio of 1623. It is also a comedy of twins. Sebastián and Viola are twin brother and sister. A shipwreck separates them on the coast of Illyria. Viola is saved in a boat dressed young man who calls himself Cesario and happens to serve as a page to Duke Orsino, who is in love with Olivia. But she rejects him. Orsino uses Cesario as confidant to despair of this one, which is in love with Orsino. Olivia, on the other hand, falls in love with Cesario. Antonio, Captain of the ship that has rescued Sebastián, arrives at Illyria. Misunderstandings and crosses of couple are finally resolved. There is also a subargumento that has to do with the House of Olivia. Cesario is challenged to a duel by a rejected suitor of Olivia. Cesario is rescued by Sebastián (his brother in reality). Antonio believes that Cesario is Sebastián. Antonio is arrested for an old debt and requires a bag with money which he had given to Sebastián Cesario-Viola. Olivia, to see the true Sebastián, taken by Cesario and invites you to their home and marries him. Orsino goes to see Olivia. The Duke, wounded, says goodbye to Olivia and Cesario. Sebastián arrives and explains everything. Finally, Viola is married with Duke.
This work was written around 1610 or 1611, year in which was represented at the Globe Theatre. It was one of the represented works to celebrate the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth and the Palatine Elector, in 1612. It was printed in the Folio of 1623, where is included as the last work in the comedy section. Its main source is the Pandosto, of Greene. Leontes, King of Sicilia, and his virtuous wife Hermione are visited by Polixenes, King of Bohemia, who was a friend of Leontes childhood. Leontes becomes convinced that Hermione and Polixenes are lovers. Try to poison Polixenes, but he escapes and imprisons Hermione, that, in prison, gives birth to a daughter. Paulina, wife of Antigonus, a Sicilian nobleman, tries to convince the King and takes the baby. But everything is in vain. Commands to Antigonus to leave it abandoned on a deserted Beach, that they perish. There is no case to an Oracle which has acquitted Hermione. His son Mamillius has died of grief by the treatment given to Hermione and shortly after the own Hermione die. Meanwhile, Antigonus leaves the girl, Perdita, on a beach in Bohemia and a bear kills him. Perdita is collected and reared by a shepherd. Sixteen years later, Florizel, son of King Polixenes, falls for her, and is reciprocated. This is discovered by Polixenes, and to avoid his wrath, Florizel and Perdita, pastor flee to the Court of Leontes, where Perdita identity is discovered by Leontes with great delight, but with sadness and remorse for the death of his wife Hermione. Paulina shows a statue of the exact proportions to the own Hermione and, at a certain moment, it comes to life, since Paulina had announced falsely his death, precisely to save his life. Polixenes is reconciled with the marriage of his son to Perdita, to realize that the girl's pastor is really the daughter of his old friend Leontes.
It is a historical drama, probably based on an earlier anonymous work. The date of composition is uncertain, but it must be between 1591 and 1598. It was printed in the Folio of 1623. The work, with some freedoms on historical data, is of different events of the reign of the King Juan, and mainly of the tragedy of the young Arturo. It ends with the death of John Swinstead Abbey. It is surprising that it does not appear any mention to the Magna Carta. The tragic quality of the work, the character of Constance, the mother of Arturo, and political complications that arise are sieved by wit, humor and grace of the bastard, a supposed son of Auckland, and in reality, the son of Ricardo lion heart.
Probably written and represented in 1595, his main source is Holinshed's Chronicles. The King Ricardo solves arbitrarily exile Henry Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt and Thomas Moebray, Duke of Norfolk.
When John of Gaunt died, Ricardo confiscates their property to pay their Irish wars, reason by which leaves the country. Bolingbroke returned to claim his inheritance and takes the castle of Berkeley. The King returns to Wales and learns that his Welsh supporters have abandoned him, and that Bolingbroke has executed the Favorites of the King. In London, Ricardo cedes his Crown to Bolingbroke, enclosing it in the tower. There is a plot to kill Bolingbroke, which has proclaimed itself as Enrique IV, and which is aborted by York. Ricardo to move it to the castle of Pomfret, where she learns the crowning of Henry, and where he is killed by Sir Pierce of Exton. The day before the revolt of Essex, in 1601, his supporters went to see a play about Ricardo II which was surely that of Shakespeare.
It consists of two parts that were written and represented to 1597. The first part was printed in fourth in 1598. The second part was published in 1600. The main sources are the Chronicles of Hall and Holinshed, and the historical poem by Daniel The Civil Wars, very popular in its time. The theme of the first part is the rebellion of the Percys, aided by Douglas and according to Mortimer and Glendower, and their defeat at the hands of Hal, Prince of Wales, at Shrewsbury (1403). The famous character Falstaff first appears in this book. Prince Hal kills Hotspur in a singular and heroic combat and then learns that Falstaff is faking his own death. The second part is the revolt of the Archbishop Scroop, Mowbray and Hastings with a subgargumento that has to do with the stories of Falstaff and his friends.
It was written in the spring or in the summer of 1599. It was printed in 1600 from a reconstruction from memory. The 1623 Folio Edition is based on Shakespeare's own papers. Its main sources are the Chronicles of Hall and Holinshed. The work, which has a strong patriotic value, is one of the most popular and frequently represented the copyright and has been used in political key in times of crisis. Remember, for example, the film version that made Lawrence Olivier in 1944. The work is based on the legitimate claims that the young Henry on the throne of France, as explained by the Archbishop of Canterbury in a long Parliament at the beginning of the work. The gesture of the French Dauphin Henry send a few balls of tennis as a gift, give you an immediate reason for the invasion. Before the campaign, Enrique unmasks the treacherous three and March on France, besieging and capturing Harfleur, and finally gets a great victory at Agincourt (1415). The speech when preparing his soldiers for the battle, that will be the day of San Crispin is famous. There are a number of characters comic side, friends of the old Falstaff Tavern, which put the casual and human counterpoint to the patriotic exaltation of the work. The scenes of courtship and seduction between Henry and Catherine of France are also very theatrical.
This work is a tetralogy that consists of three parts, which Ricardo III must come together. They were written between 1590 and 1592. The first part was not published until the first folio of 1623. The second part was made anonymously in 1594, under the title of "The first part of the contention between the two famous houses of York and Lancaster", which refers to known as the war of the two roses. The third part was published in 1595 as the real tragedy of Ricardo, Duke of York, and the death of good King Enrique VI. Authorship, especially the first part, is called into question in the 18th century and 19th century, alluding to that quality was much lower. However in the 20th century critics have recognized its single authorship. The main sources, as in other historical works are the Chronicles of Hall and Holinshed.
Part I. It opens with the funeral of Enrique V and has to do with the wars in France, in which the gallant Talbot is the powerful leader of the English side, and the Middle witch Juana de Arco, French. After several meetings, Talbot and his brave son die near Bordeaux. An important scene is the IV of Act II in the garden of the Temple, in which the Red roses and white established the antagonism between the Plantagenet and the York, something that will be present in the following wars. In Act V, the Earl of Suffolk arranges the marriage between the young Enrique VI and Margarita of Anjou, daughter of the King of Naples.
Part II. It shows the marriage of Henry and Margaret. The Duke of Gloucester, the Lord Protector, is arrested for high treason and killed. Suffolk is killed by pirates on the coast of Kent. Ricardo, Duke of York and pretender to the throne, moves to Jack Cade rebellion and this is finally killed. The final Act refers to the battle of St. Albans (1455) in which Somerset is killed, which is a victory for the Yorkists.
Part III. It opens with the attempt of Henry to buy peace, making her heir to the Duke of York and disowning the son with Margaret. Margaret instigates Clifford to the murder of the youngest son of York. Clifford died at the battle of Towton, which also includes a symbolic scene on the horrors of the Civil War. Henry VI is captured and Edward IV declared King. He married the widow Elizabeth Grey, although previously promised to Bona, sister of the King of France. Richard, Duke of Gloucester (the future Richard III) emerges as an ambitious Machiavelli. The battle of Tewkesbury is a decisive victory for Edward, and the small son of Margaret (also Edward) is murdered in cold blood by Edward, Richard and Clarence. King Henry is imprisoned in the tower and killed by Richard.
It was probably written and performed in 1591. It is published for the first time in a quarter of 1597 Edition. It was reprinted five times before the text complete and more reliable, in the Folio of 1623. The main sources are the Chronicles of Hall and Holinshed, which in turn contain material of the Anglicae Historiae, Polidoro Vergílioand the The History of King Richard the Thirde, of T. More. This work complete tetralogy of Enrique VI and Ricardo III focuses on the character of Ricardo of Gloucester, later. Painted the character as ambitious, bloodthirsty, proud and traitor, but brave in battle, murderer and usurper of the Crown. The play begins with the announcement of the deformed Ricardo: "now is the winter of our sadness / made glorious summer by this Sun of York", alluding to King Eduardo IV that is dying. Ricardo is determined to succeed him on the throne and machine how to eliminate any opposition. First murders his brother, the Duke of Clarence. Anne, widow of Eduardo, Prince of Wales, is courted by Ricardo at the funeral of his father-in-law, Enrique VI. They later marry. When the King dies, Ricardo begins his attack on the family of Queen Elizabeth and his supporters. With the help of the Duke of Buckingham, Hastings, Rivers and Grey are executed and Buckingham persuades the citizens of London to King they proclaim to Ricardo. After his coronation he kill his nephews, who are in the tower. After the death of his wife Anne, to which he contributes, it tries to marry his niece Elizabeth de York. Buckingham rebels and joins the forces of Henry Tudor, Duke of Richmond, who has landed in Wales to claim his Crown. Ricardo captures and executes to Buckingham, but will face Richmond army at the battle of Bosworth. Very interesting are the scenes in which the night before the battle the ghosts of all its victims, that announce you its defeat will appear to Ricardo. In the battle he loses his horse, which claims with that phrase of "a horse, a horse, my Kingdom" by a horse. Finally dies in battle at the hands of Richmond, which will be proclaimed Enrique VII, the first King of the Tudors.
Contemporaries also knew this work as All is True (all is true). Although it has been attributed to Shakespeare the authorship of the work, more than half should have been written by J. Fletcher, whose hand was suggested by Tennyson. The main sources are the Chronicles of Holinshed and Actes and Monuments (book of martyrs), Foxe. The work is fundamentally of the execution of the Duke of Buckingham, the question of divorce real (emphasising the dignity and resignation of the Catalina Queen), the pride and the fall of Cardinal Wolsey and his death, adventure and Coronation of Anne Boleyn, Cranmer's triumph over his enemies and the christening of Princess Elizabeth (later Isabel I).
It was probably written in 1602 and printed in 1609 in a fourth edition. The story has to do with two lovers, with the site of Troy and the betrayal of the Greeks, topic addressed in a very conventional way. It carries the story until the death of Héctor at the hands of Achilles. Troilo can not kill his rival Diomedes. G. Chaucer also wrote a poem about this topic.
It was printed in the first Folio of 1623, where you are located as the first tragedy. However, in the order of composition, surely was the last tragedy wrote, to 1608. The source is the version of Plutarch 's life of Caius Martius Coriolanus by North. The work has never been very popular, but in the s. XX its political and military themes have stimulated some works, such as two poems by T. S. Eliot that carry the title of Coriolanus. Caius Martius is a proud Roman general who demonstrates a great value in the war against the volsci, and captures the city of Corioli, thus receiving the nickname of Coriolanus. On his return is proposed for consul, although his pride and arrogance make it unpopular, and the tribunes of the Plebs banish it. Coriolanus goes to the general of the volsci, Anfidius, its great enemy, and leads his troops against Rome, by way of revenge. It reaches the walls of the city and the Romans, to save it from destruction, sent to old friends as emissaries. Only the presence of his wife, his son and, above all, the eloquence of his mother, manage to convince him. Coriolanus signs a treaty with the volsci but is later accused of treason and general Aufidius kills him.
It is probably his first tragedy, and data of 1590. In 1594 it was published in fourth and was reprinted twice, until it appeared in the first folio of 1623. Although his authorship has been questioned in past time, currently already there is no doubt about it. Several sources have been cited: Hecuba of Euripides, Thyestes and Troades, of Seneca, metamorphoses by Ovid (book XIII) and Plutarch. The first part is the return of Titus Andronicus to Rome, after his sixth victory over the Goths. Brings with him his Queen Tamora and her three children, the eldest of which Alarbus is sacrificed in order to avenge the death of their children. They offer to Tito the imperial mantle, but to divert him the son of the last emperor, Saturninus, who married his daughter Lavinia. Brother Saturnino pretends to Lavinia, and while he kidnaps her, Titus kills Mutius, son of Saturnino which has tried to avoid the action. Saturnino renounces Lavinia and marries Tamora, who feigns a false reconciliation between Emperor and Tito, which aims to destroy. It manages to destroy it with the help of her lover Aaron, which gets the sons of Tamora, Chiron and Demetrius, to kill Bassianus, whose body is thrown down a well. Aaron Lavinia raped and cut the tongue and hands. Quintus and Martius, son of Tito, are led by Aaron to the well and accused of the murder of Bassianus. Aaron tells Titus that children must be not executed if he cut off a hand and sends it to the emperor. Tito does but receives it back with the heads of her two children. In the second part Tito discovers who raped and mutilated her daughter, and with his brother Marcus and the remaining son, Lucius, swears revenge. This leaves Rome and returned with an army of Goths, which capture his son with Tamora and Aaron. She and her two sons, Demetrius and Chiron, visit Tito disguised as revenge, kidnapping and murder. They ask for that banquet Lucio takes place in house of Tito, will go where the Emperor, Empress, and the children of this. Tito recognizes his enemies and helped by Lavinia, kill to Chiron and Demetrius and uses his flesh in a stew, part which serves Tamora at the banquet, until Tito murder it. He also stabs Lavinia, but is killed by Saturnino which, in turn, dies at the hands of Lucius, which is elected Emperor and condemns Aaron to be buried up to the neck and starve.
It is his first romantic tragedy, based on the poem by Arthur Brooke "The Tragical Historye of Romeu and Juliet" (1562), which is a translation from the French of a story by Bandello. It was probably written to 1595 and published for the first time in a wrong room, in 1597. A good quarter appears in 1599. It is reprinted in 1609 and serves as a backup to the Folio of 1623. It is one of the most popular, most represented, more adapted and more loved by the public. The problem stems from the rivalry between the Montagues and the Capulets, two families of Verona. Romeo, who is a Montague, is promised to the niece of Lord Capuleto, Rosaline. But at a party given by Capuleto, Romeo appears with mask and falls for Juliet, the daughter of Capuleto. She gives her consent to a secret marriage. With the help of Fray Lorenzo marry the next day. Tybaldo and Mercutio (rivals) fight. Mercutio falls, intervenes Romeo and Tybalt dies. Romeo is sentenced to banishment. The next day, and after spending the night with Juliet, he moved to Mantua, advised by the friar, who tries to reveal the marriage at an opportune moment. Capulet intends to Juliet to marry count Paris. With the help of the friar, Juliet takes a potion the night before the wedding, which will keep it as dead for 42 hours. He will warn to Romeo, who will rescue her in the crypt and will take her to Mantua. But the Friar note goes astray and Romeo learns that Juliet is dead. Reach the crypt to hear the last breath of his beloved. She meets the count Paris, struggle and Romeo kills Paris. Then, after a last Kiss on the lips, drinking poison that takes and dies. When Juliet wakes up he meets dead Romeo, the drink still in hand. Seeing this, he is stabbed and dies. Before so sad history, the Capulets and the Montagues are reconciled.
(See Romeo and Juliet).
Written around 1607, probably in collaboration with Middleton, and seems unfinished. It is published in the Folio of 1623. The material takes it the life of Antonio Plutarch, the Palacio of pleasure, Painter, and rudder or the Misanthrope, Luciano. Rudder and a wealthy Athenian noble, graceful nature, has ruined by his generosity with friends and enlists the help of his wealthy friends, but is abandoned by those who had so much to him and had frequented it. He surprises them with one feast more. When they discover the dishes they check that they contain only hot water rudder throws on their faces while directing them some imprecations. He cursed the city and goes to live in a cave. While he digs for roots to eat, find a treasure that no longer has value for it. Displays your bitterness in his conversations with Alcibiades, the philosopher Apemanto and robbers and sycophants who come to the cave by gold. When the Senators of Athens ask for help against the attacks of Alcibiades, offers his fig tree so that they hang, as a remedy to his affliction. His grave is found on the beach with an epitaph that expresses his hatred for humanity.
It is a tragedy probably written and performed in 1599, and not printed until the first Folio of 1623. The main source is the translation that made North of the lives of Plutarch. It begins with the events of the year 44 BC, after César, already become a dictator, has returned to Rome after a glorious campaign in Hispania, and there are fears that is crowned as King. The fear of his ambition leads to a conspiracy against him, led by Casio and Casca. Both get rough, making it reluctantly a. César is killed by the conspirators in the Senate. Antonio, friend of César, raise the people against the conspirators in a Masterful speech at the funeral of César. Octavian, nephew of Julio César, formed a triumvirate with Antonio and Lepidus against the forces of Brutus and Cassius. These are defeated in the battle of Philippi (42 BC) and commit suicide.
This work was probably written and staged in the Globe Theatre, in 1606, although it was not printed until the edition of the first Folio of 1623. The text is exceptionally short, and it has been thought that it contains material unrelated to Shakespeare, probably of Middleton. Surely it was represented to Jacobo I, interested Cone was in witches and that supposedly descended from Banquo. Macbeth and Banquo, two generals of Duncan, King of Scotland, are way back of a victorious campaign against the rebels and three witches meet in a heathland, that prophesy them that Macbeth will be Lord of Cawdor and then King, and Banquo will engender Kings, although it will not be. Immediately after comes the news that the King has appointed Macbeth Lord Cawdor. Encouraged by the prophecy and egged on by Lady Macbeth, murders Duncan in a party that offers you in the Castle. Children of Duncan, Malcolm and Donalbain, escape and Macbeth is crowned King. For fear of the prophecies of the witches to Banquo, he ordered the murder of this and his son Fleance, but it manages to escape. Terrified by the spirit of Banquo, Macbeth consulting the witches, warning him against Macduff, Lord of Fife, and communicate you will not overcome until Birnam forest come to Dunsinane. Macduff has joined Malcolm, who is recruiting an army in England. Macbeth surprises them and kills Lady Macduff and her children. Lady Macbeth becomes insane and dies. The army of Malcolm and Macduff passed through the forest of Birnam; each man cut a branch and March against Dunsinane. Macduff killed Macbeth and Malcolm is proclaimed King of Scotland.
This work dates from 1604-5 and it was represented in the Court in 1606; published in fourth in 1608 and was reprinted in 1619. A different version in Folio appeared in 1623. Traditionally has been considered that the two versions have a common ancestor. But modern criticism suggests that the fourth version presents a text that was portrayed and revised edition in Folio. Sources include an earlier work, King Leir (represented in 1594 and printed in 1605), Holinshed's Chronicles and the mirror for magistrates. The subargumento of Gloucester derives from the Arcadia of Sidney. The King of Britain, Lear, petulant and foolish old, has three daughters: Goneril, wife of the Duke of Albany; Regan, wife of the Duke of Cornwall; and Cordelia, having as pretender to the King of France and the Duke of Burgundy. Lear tries to divide the Kingdom according to the degree of affection for his daughters, and asks who loves you more. Goneril and Regan make profession of extreme affection, and each receives one third of the Kingdom. Cordelia, disgusted by the exaggeration of his sisters, said he loves you in accordance with its duty, neither more nor less. Lear cannot tolerate this response and disown it, giving its share to the other two sisters, on the condition that he himself with 100 Knights are maintained by the daughters. Burgundy withdraws his courtship to Cordelia and the King of France accepts it without dowry. Goneril and Regan reveal his true ruthless heart, and end up throwing to the father's House, in the middle of a storm. The Duke of Gloucester shows mercy towards the old King and is accused of complicity with the French, who have landed in England. Cornwall takes the eyes but is mortally wounded in the fray. The son of Gloucester, Edgar, who has been defamed before his father by his bastard brother, Edmund, disguised mad beggar and takes care of his father. Lear, who has lost the trial, was escorted to Dover by the faithful disguised Kent. There Cordelia receives it. Meanwhile, Goneril and Regan have directed their affection to Edmund. Bitter by this rivalry, Goneril poisons Regan and then commits suicide. The French defeat the British forces, under the command of Edmund and Albany, and Lear and Cordelia are imprisoned. By order of Edmund, Cordelia is hanged and Lear dies of pain. The treachery of Edmund is proven by Edgar. Albany, which has not seconded to Goneril in their cruel treatment of Lear, takes charge of the Kingdom.
(See King Lear).
The moor of Venice is a tragedy written between 1602 and 1604 in which was represented by James I, in Whitehall. It was printed in fourth in 1622, and in a different version in the Folio of 1623. The story is taken from Cinthio, that Shakespeare could have read in Italian or in French. The first act takes place in Venice. Desdemona, the daughter of Brabantio, a Venetian Senator, has married secretly with Othello, a Moor in the service of the State. Accused before the Duke of having stolen the daughter of Brabantio, Othello justifies his drive, and the Senate asks him to lead troops against the Turks, who are preparing to attack Cyprus. Scattered storm the Turkish fleet and Othello disembarks in Cyprus with Desdemona, Cassio, a young Florentine which will promote in charge of Lieutenant, Yago, an old and bitter soldier for not having been promoted, and which now plans his revenge. Yago uses Roderigo, who is in love with Desdemona, to fight with Cassio, after having drunk. Othello takes his new rank. He then persuades Cassio to ask Desdemona intercede for him with Othello. She accepts it. At the same time, Yago suggests to Othello that Cassio is and has been the lover of Desdemona. With the help of Emilia, who is the maid of Desdemona, Othello is a Cassio in possession of a handkerchief which he had given to his wife. Othello becomes mad with jealousy and strangles Desdemona in bed. Yago encourages Roderigo to kill Cassio, but when this fails, Yago kills him as well as Emilia, since this proved the innocence of Desdemona in Othello. Letters and evidence of Emilia prove the guilt of Yago, who is arrested. Othello, after attempting to stab yago, commits suicide.
This work was probably written between 1606-7 and not printed to the Folio of 1623. The main source is the "life of Antonio", Plutarch, on the translation of T. North, which Shakespeare followed with great fidelity. The work presents Marco Antonio, the great soldier and noble Prince, in Alexandria, caught by the beauty of Cleopatra. Claimed by the death of his wife Fulvia and other political affairs, and torn by the separation, returns to Rome, where he married Octavia, sister of César, for political reasons. This event causes the jealousy of Cleopatra. But reconciliation with César lasts little, and leaves Octavia and returns to Egypt. In the battle of Actium, Antonio and the Egyptian fleet are removed and César pursues them to Alexandria. Antonio is defeated and, after the false news of the death of Cleopatra, commits suicide. He died in the arms of Cleopatra. Cleopatra does not want to surrender to the power of César and dies for the moderdura of an ASP.
It is a work published in the Folio of 1623. It was written around 1609-10. The sources are Holinshed's Chronicles, the mirror of justices and perhaps the Decameron. Although in the Folio Edition was included among the tragedies, currently it classified as a "romance". It was very appreciated in the 19th century.
Imogen, daughter of Cymbeline, King of Britain is married in secret to Posthumus Leonatus, a poor but worthy Knight. The Queen and stepmother of Imogen, wants his son Cloten, a sort of clown, marry Imogen. This reveals the King the secret marriage of his daughter. This banishes Posthumus. In Rome, Posthumus boasts of Imogen's virtue and makes a bet with Iachimo: If seduce Imogen will give you a diamond ring given to him by Imogen. Imogen rejects Iachimo but this is hidden in your bedroom and see details of the fourth and his body, which makes think infidelity of Imogen Posthumus. Iachimo receives the ring. Posthumus writes to his servant Pisanio to tell that to kill Imogen, but Pisanio brings a disguise to Imogen and sent a bloodied costume to Posthumus that he believe that Imogen is dead. Under the name of Fidèle, Imogen becomes page Bellarius and the two lost sons of Cymbeline, Guiderius and Arviragus, living in a cottage in Wales. Fidèle sick and is found dead by the brothers. Abandoned, revives, and see your side body without head of Cloten, believes he or she borrowed clothes that wear eyeglasses, which is your husband Posthumus. A Roman army invade Britain, and Imogen falls into the hands of general Lucius as a page. The Britons defeated the Romans thanks to the superhuman courage of Bellarius and of her two children, aided by disguised Posthumus. Posthumus, while he pretends to be a Roman, is taken prisoner and prison has a vision of his family in which Jupiter lets a prophetic document. Lucius implores Cymbeline for the life of Fidèle/Imogen. He saves his life and gives you a favor. Iachimo forced to answer how he got the ring, tells the truth and Posthumus learns that Imogen is innocent even though they believe it dead until it appears. The joy of the King to recover her daughter grows when Bellarius returns to his two lost sons. The scene ends with a general reconciliation.
It is a romantic drama made between 1606 and 1608. A corrupt Edition of the text was published in fourth in 1609 and was reprinted five times. The work was omitted from the first Folio of 1623, but was included in the second edition of the third Folio of 1664. The work is based on the story of Apollonius of tyre of the Confessio Amantis, of Gower, and a version in prose that derived from the Gesta Romanorum, The Patterne of Painefull Adventures, registered in 1576 and reprinted in 1607, by Lawrence Twine. The work is presented by Gower, who acts as chorus, and how, solved the enigma of the Rey Arturo, and discovered the incestuous relationship with his daughter, Pericles, Prince of tyre, see endangered his life. Leaves the Government in the hands of his honest Minister Helicanus, and sails shot to Tarsus. On the coast of Pentapolis, Pericles survives the shipwreck of their boat, and in a tournament, defeat the suitors for the hand of Thaisa, daughter of King Simónides, which marries. After hearing that Antioco has died, Pericles moves to throw. During a storm on the voyage, Thaisa has a daughter, Marina, and vanishes as dead. Thaisa is buried in a bargueño, which is thrown into the water at Ephesus, where Ceriman, a doctor, opens it and returns to life to Thaisa. She, believing that her husband has drowned, becomes a priestess in the Temple of Diana. Pericles leads Navy to Tarsus where leaves her with Governor Cleón and his wife Dionyza. When the girl grows, Dionyza, jealous because it is more graceful than his own daughter, tries to kill her. But Marina is kidnapped by pirates and sold to a brothel, where its purity and piety are won the admiration of Lysimachus, the Governor of the city, and the respect of one of the servants of the brothel, Boult, who frees her in Mytilene. Shown to Pericles in a vision the tomb of Marina, deceptively erected by Cleon and Dionyza. It is the sea again and landed in Mytilene, where through Lysimaco, and to its happy, he discovers his daughter. In a second view, Diana directs it toward your Temple in Ephesus, and there tells the story of his life. In doing so, the Priestess Thaisa, his lost wife, recognizes, and, finally, father, mother and daughter, meet again. At the end of the work, the choir has how Cleon and Dionyza are burned by the citizens of Tarsus, as punishment for their wickedness.
It is a tragicomedy attributed to Fletcher and Shakespeare, and published in 1634. Despite his absence from the 1623 Folio Edition, it seems a genuine work done between the two playwrights. The modern editions of the complete works not normally include it. The work is based on "The tale of the gentleman" of the Canterbury Tales of Chaucer. The fundamental added to the original argument is the daughter of the jailer who falls for Palamon, go crazy with melancholy and is curated by a hunk of lower class that pretends to be Palamon. All the tone is lighter than in the poem of Chaucer. This is due, in part, to the songs and the lyrical passages included. There is also a country festival with dances. Theseus is a less heavy and ominous figure that in Chaucer, and the death of Arcite is quick and elegant. This work has hardly been represented in modern times.
It is a romantic drama, probably written in 1611, when it was represented to the King, in Whitehall. In 1613 he was also included in the celebration of the wedding of Princess Elizabeth and the Palatine Elector. It was not printed until 1623, when it appears as the first work of the first Folio. He is regarded as the last work he wrote Shakespeare, before retiring to Stratford. Although there are various texts which mention a similar shipwreck, no source, is not known because everything seems to be a wonderful invention of the poet. Prosperous, Duke of Milan, deposed from the throne by his brother Antonio, is cast into the sea with her daughter, where wandering at the mercy of the waves, until they are thrown onto a desert island. This has been the place of exile of the witch Sycorax. Prosperous, through his knowledge of magic, has released some spirits, such as the Ariel, prisoners of Sycorax, who now obey Prospero. The son of the witch, Caliban, a misshapen monster, which is the only inhabitant of the island is also under its service. Prosperous and Miranda have thus lived for twelve years.
When the play begins, a boat carrying the usurper, to his Confederate Alonso, King of Naples, his brother Sebastián, and his son Fernando, shipwrecked on the island by the intervention of the arts of Prospero. Passengers will save, but others believe that Fernando has drowned and he thinks the same about the rest. According to the plans of Prospero, Miranda and Fernando fall together, fall in love and are promised in marriage. Prosperous appears to distract Fernando, and puts it to drag logs. In another part of the island, Sebastián and Antonio are trying to kill Alonso and Gonzalo, "old and honored Advisor", which has helped to prosper in his exile. Caliban offers its services to Stephano, Trinculo and drunk, Butler, a juggler, and persuades Antonio of trying to kill Prospero and Sebastián.
When the plot approaches him, Prospero rips the mask of Iris, Juno and Ceres, Ariel submitted to Fernando and Miranda, Caliban, Stephano and Trinculo are removed in the Middle, and Ariel brings to the King and his courtiers to the cell of Prospero. There he greets his friend Gonzalo, forgives his brother Antonio on condition that will restore his Duchy, and meets his son Fernando, who is discovered playing chess with Miranda to Alonso. Alonso repents for what he has done, Antonio and Sebastián do not speak directly with Prospero, but while exchanging ironic and cynical comments. The boatswain of the ship appears to report that the ship has been magically repaired, and the crew is safe. Before embarking for Italy, prosperous free Ariel, renounces his magic and leaves to Caliban, new, only on the island. The storm has been much appreciated in the s. XX and has inspired many other works of art.
The only works that Shakespeare wrote for publication are the narrative poems Venus and Adonis (1593) and The Rape of Lucrece (1594), with a dedication of the author to Henry Wriothesley, Duke of Southampton, which also will dedicate the sonnets, and the short poem The Phoenix and the Turtle (1601)
This poem is written in sixth rhyme, a Quartet followed by a couplet, Spenser used in Astrophel. It was the first publication of Shakespeare and Richard Field, another man from Stratford printed it. It was very popular in its time and was reprinted at least 15 times, before 1640. Venus, who is in love with Adonis, stops him while he is hunting and Woo him, but fails to win his love. She begs you to are the next day, but he has gone to hunt wild boar. She tries in vain to dissuade him. When morning arrives, she hears the cornered podencos and frightens you; He goes to look for Adonis and meets the wild boar has killed him.
It is written in rhyme Royal, and is a rhetorical expansion and history such as the account Livio. Lucrecia was a famous Roman Lady, daughter of Lucretius and wife of Tarquinio Collatino, whose beauty ignites the passion of Sextus (son of Tarquinius, the King of Rome) that uses the threat and violence. Lucretia, after reporting her father and her husband what happened and urging them to revenge, life is removed. Tragedy leads to the expulsion of the Tarquinii in Rome, and the introduction of the Republican government.
It is an allegorical Elegy only attributed to Shakespeare that was included in the collection Love completo Martyr, Robert Chester, and published in 1601.
Shakespeare's sonnets represent the top of the English lyric poetry. Shakespeare ta