(Sha-mash-shum-u-kin or GISH.SHIR-MU-GI.NA) penultimate King of the ninth dynasty of Babylon - although of Assyrian lineage-, son of King Assarhaddon and brother of Assurbanipal. Since Assarhaddon also was the nominal owner of Babylon (city that, while he/she was Crown Prince, had administered with all efficiency and even had been rebuilt, moved by his historic and religious past before launching to, has always cherished the conquest of Egypt company), in the year 672 BC, decided to divide the Empire among his sons: Assurbanipal to Assyria and Babylon to Shamash-Shum-Ukin, solution which, however, did not count with the approval of the Assyrian court or with the clergy, but that was OK by oath of allegiance. Shamash-Shum-Ukin, who was always handicapped with the cast (politically the city of Babylon was less important than the Assyrian Empire), to the constant interference of Assurbanipal in Babylonian Affairs, took up arms, with the help of Egypt, some Syrian princes, the Elamites and Chaldeans, and even the Arab nomads (qidri, aribi, nabaiti). Assyria, by sending troops and constant political intrigues, managed to contain the revolt and even attack Babylon, who could not count with the help of the Elam, then engaged in a civil war. The city was taken to the assault in 648 BC, and rather than surrender, Shamash-Shum-Ukin, the rebel, was launched to the flames that consumed his palace. This fact would be taken up by Diodorus Siculus to produce the famous "suicide of Sardanapalus', confusing story and not concorde with the historical facts. Babylon was in the hands of Assurbanipal which, under the name of Kandalanu, was recognized as King (some specialists, however, believe that Kandalanu was a noble Assyrian, not identifiable with the famous King of Assyria).