Chinese emperor, first of the Qing dynasty, born in 1638 with the name of Fulin and died in 1661, ruled officially China from 1644 until his death. Shunzi was the first manchu sovereign (see Manchuria), a dynasty that would perpetuate itself in the Chinese imperial throne until the proclamation of the Republic in 1911. His reign was characterized by the efforts of military and political consolidation of the new regime, as well as the beginning of the assimilation of the Chinese culture of the manchu minority.
Son of Abahai manchu warlord and a Mongol Princess, Shunzi was portrayed by the Chronicles of the time as a Prince of fragile health but with qualities that trained him to exert the Government. However, be elevated to the throne with only six years made the shoulders of all the power on the influential figure of a Regent, his uncle Dorgon, and that gradually the sovereign was losing interest in public affairs, but after the death of his uncle (1650) had the wisdom of appointing ministers quite efficient. The most urgent political task of the new manchu regime was to restore order and the unity of the Empire, whose territory was still detached at the time of the ascent to the throne of Shinzu. Minister Dorgon overcame some of the recent General Ming (Chang Hsien-tsung, Chu Yu-yueh), taking Canton (1647) and forcing the withdrawal of the rest to the southwestern provinces - the latter could not be incorporated into the Qing until 1681 - and Formosa sovereignty. Likewise, in 1658 a manchu army defeated the pirates who were ravaging the rich Southeastern coast Chinese.
One of the most notable facts of the reign of Shunzi was the opening in Beijing of the first Catholic Church in China, initiative of the Jesuit missionaries (1650), which highlighted the figure of Adam Schall von Bell (1591-1666); This German Jesuit also prepared at the request of the throne a new calendar according to the Western model and was a protégé of the Emperor, despite envy raised in court and that made him White's palatial conspiracies; In 1661 he was sentenced to death but he finally obtained the imperial pardon. Shunzi also showed tolerance towards other religions, and as proof of this in 1653 invited to his court the Fifth Dalai Lama, leaving the emperor himself to meet him outside the city with all the honors of a head of State.
Shunzi had a genuine desire to assimilate Chinese culture, learning the language soon and becoming a student of the traditions of the country. It also contributed his passionate relationship with one of the concubines of the Court, Xiao Xian; apparently Shunzi was madly in love with her, so after his death (1660) the sovereign fell in a hopeless state of melancholy, and perhaps dementia, which prompted him to profess as a Buddhist monk, dying shortly afterwards as a result of smallpox.