Philosopher and French theoretical politician, born in Cherbourg. He/She studied at the École Polytechnique in Paris, and worked as a civil engineer in Algeria and France. In 1892 he/she retired to Boulogne-sur-Seine, where he/she dedicated himself to the study of political philosophy and social sciences until his death. It was formed in the readings of Proudhon and Marx and Nietzsche, Bergson, who was a student at the Collège de France. It was modifying its positions in relation to the events of his time. A supporter of Marxism in the Decade of 1890, contributed to the revisionist debate on it. For him, as well as for B. Croce, Marxism is not a scientific theory, but a useful action rule. Spreading of parliamentary and reformist socialism, he/she became one of the theorists of the French revolutionary unionism, or anarcosocialismo. He/She developed a strong polemic against the "mediocrity" of parliamentary democracy, the economism, materialism, and the philosophy of optimistic history Socialist organizations would have inherited from bourgeois utilitarianism. According to him, the essence of historical change factor is proletarian violence, sort of creative bergsoniano vital impulse of new ethical and social values, whose highlight is the general strike. Disillusioned of the anarcosocialismo approached the French right of the Action française, and even saw some sympathy with the first manifestations of fascism. Rightly, his thinking was claimed by competing political currents.
Main works: Ruine du monde antique (1901, on issues and problems of civilization), système historique de Renan (1906), Essais sur l'Eglise et l'Etat (1906), Avenir socialiste des syndicats (1898), Enseignements sociaux de l' économie contemporaine (1906), Réflexions sur the violence (1906), the decomposition du marxisme (1908), defense of Lenin (1919).