French writer, whose real name was Marie-Henri Beyle, although he is universally known by her literary pseudonym of Stendhal. Born in Grenoble on 23 January 1783 and died in Paris in 1842, he came from a rich bourgeois family. When he was seven years old died its mother, who loved very much; his father detested life conservatism's representing the class to which they belonged. It was sent to study at the Polytechnic School of Paris; He left the studies to work in the Ministry of war thanks to the recommendation of his cousin Daru. Adopted as a second home to Italy, a country that met after its incorporation, in 1800, Napoleon's army. He held various positions in the army, first as a second lieutenant of cavalry, becoming aide-de-camp of general Michaud. From 1806 to 1814, he traveled Italy, Austria, Germany and Russia with military and civilian functions. When Napoleon fell, he went to live in Italy, where he met his first love, Angiola Pietragrua; He settled in Milan and became interested in music and painting. It maintained relations with Matilde Dembowski whom he had met in 1818. They accused him of carbonarismo and had to return to Paris in 1921. In Paris he led a worldly life hauling him many expenses, so wrote articles in English magazines and in the Journal de Paris on criticism of art and music, since they continually denied a government job. In 1830 came when Luis Felipe to power, appointed him consul in Trieste, but given his opposition to the Austrian regime, they allocated him to Civitavecchia. In 1841 he requested a leave of absence for health reasons, returned to Paris and died a year later from an attack of apoplexy.
His passion for travel, the painting and the music we still have books: on Haydn, Mozart and Metastasio, 1815; History of painting in Italy, 1817; Rome, Naples and Florence, 1817; a biography of Rossini, 1823; Walks in Rome, 1829. They are most important treaties: love, 1822; Racine and Shakespeare, 1823-25. From 1827 novels appear: Armance, 1927; Vanina Vanini, 1929; Red and black, 1830, which kicked off the so-called realistic novel; Memories of egotism, 1832; Lucien Leuwen, who started in 1834 but was interrupted to start writing the life of Henry Brulard, interrupted at the same time in 1836; These two unfinished works were published respectively in 1894 and 1890; Victoria Accoramboni and the Cenci, both of 1837; followed the Duchess of Palliano, 1838; The Abbess of Castro, 1839, stories inspired by the Renaissance; Memories of a tourist, 1838. In 1839 he wrote his masterpiece the Charterhouse of Parma, which was narrated as individual aspirations against a fully despotic society destroyed. Deceased Stendhal were published: journal, covers the years 1801 to 1823; an excerpt from the novel the rose and green, 1837; Life of Napoleon, 1838 and part of the unfinished novel entitled Lamiel worked in 1839-42.
We can include the work of Stendhal in the Romantic movement, although characterized by its pictorial formation and its atheistic and materialist philosophy. Founder of modern realism, where man is represented within a society in full evolution and conditioned by the political and economic events of an era. It did not never adapted to the period of capitalist expansion, which analyzed and condemned for carrying out a petty policy full of interest; Instead, he showed a deep interest in the Renaissance, mitificando Italy in that it is a land of generous passions. He wanted to keep the reader an almost fraternal complicity; it melts the sincerity of Rousseau and the impersonal Chronicles. Very personal style, his lack of interest in the form led him to the most absolute modernity.